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their habitat, 
status and distribution 

J. S. Ash and J. E. Miskell 

Scopus Special Supplement Number 1 V 


their habitat, 
status and distribution 


their habitat, 
status and distribution 

J. S. Ash and J.E. Miskell 

Scopus Special Supplement Number 1 




(B) J.S. Ash and J.E. Miskell, 1983 

Published by the Ornithological Sub-Committee of the 
East African Natural History Society and available from 
D.A. Turner, P.O. Box 48019, Nairobi, Kenya. 

Printed in Kenya by:- 

English Press, P.O. Box 30127 
Enterprise Road, Nairobi 



Introduction . . . . 1 

7opography and Climate 2 

labitats 2 

)rder and Nomenclature 3 

lources of Data 3 

;tatus 4 

)istribution .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 4 

lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 

format of Species in Lists 5 

indices 6 

Jazetteer 6 

Jummary of Data 6 

acknowledgements 7 

.ist A : Species Recorded in Somalia 9 

ast B : Species Recorded off Shore, out of Sight of Land 75 

ist C : Species for which Confirmation of Specimen Identification is 

Required 75 

iist D : Species and Subspecies not Considered Acceptable for 

Inclusion in List A 76 

jist E : Hybrids Recorded from Somalia 78 

leferences 79 

Index of English Names 81 

Index of Scientific Names 88 

Ash s Larks Mirafra ashi/rora a pen and wash drawing by Dr Caroline Asl 


J A glance at the distribution maps in Hall & Moreau (1970) and Snow (1978) 
I will indicate the major gaps in the knowledge of the distribution of even 
many of the commoner birds in Somalia. In preparing the first annotated 
species list for the country we have undertaken a comprehensive review of 
the literature, and have drawn heavily on our own observations extending 
over three years (we lived in Somalia for 34 and 26 months respectively 
in 1978-1981) . 

Ornithologically Somalia is one of the least well-known of African 
countries. As evidence for this statement is our own addition to the list 
of 50 species and two hybrids in less than three years. There are still 
quite large parts of Somalia from which there are no observations at all, 
and most of the rest of the country is poorly known and has seldom been 
visited by ornithologists. This emphasises the need for a thorough 
ornithological survey of the country, particularly in those areas, sometimes 
the least known, where dramatic ecological changes are taking place. Indeed, 
there are few countries which offer more scope for original ornithological 
discovery, particularly with regard to zoogeography. While significant new 
knowledge might be obtained almost anywhere in the course of casual 
observation, several specific studies would prove especially worthwhile, 
e.g. further investigation of the abundance of sea-birds at Hafun; the 
Hippolals and Acrocephalus warblers in the northern mangroves; an unidentified 
pale Cisticola along the lower Shebelle; the whole subject of the migration of 
Palaearctic birds, especially in the north in spring. 

It is beyond the scope of this work to discuss threatened and endangered 
species fully, but some are already under threat due to accelerating loss, or 
change of habitat. In this respect the remarkable endemic Warsangell Linnet 
Acanthis johannis in the highland juniper forest, and the three races of the 
Scaly Babbler Turdoides squamulatus , two of which occur in rapidly disappear- 
ing riverine woodland, may be mentioned. Major ecological changes are already 
taking place, mainly as a result of man's activities. Of these, some, such as 
the development of irrigation schemes, are beneficial to wetland migrants and 
to pest species. However, most have led to reduction of available habitat, 
particularly for species with specialised requirements. Examples include the 
adverse effect of settled rural human populations on the local 'delicate' 
environment? the increase in human population; catastrophic destruction of 
some forested areas; severe over-grazing, often encouraged by the increased 
availability of water from deep wells and boreholes; and increasing desert- 
ification, partly brought about by severe droughts, but exacerbated by some 
of the afore-mentioned factors. 

We have modelled this checklist on the Birds of East Africa (Britton 1980) , 
largely because of its excellence, but also in an attempt to establish some 
uniformity of treatment in ornithological literature in the region. Like that 
work, ours has also been a spare-time activity. We have, however, made two 
Innovations. Firstly for those observers whose travel is restricted within 
the official 40 km radius round Mogadishu, all species recorded in this area 
are marked with an asterisk (*) . Secondly, those species for which there are 
10 or fewer records from the country are denoted by a cross (+) . 

A total of 639 species and two hybrids had been recorded from Somalia by the 
end of 1981. Of these, we have seen all except five, so that the information 
which follows is based on wide experience as well as wide travel. 


Somalia lies on the east coast of Africa - 'the Horn of Africa 1 - extending 
in an arid swathe from 12°N to 2*S and from 41*E to 51°30'E. The country has 
an area of some 638 000 km 2 (63.8 million ha), much of it sparsely populated 
bushland. Most of the southern two-thirds of the country is flat and low, 
but in the north it rises to some 2200 m on an escarpment which runs east- 
west along much of the north a short distance inland from the coast. Two 
rivers, the Juba and the Shebelle, bring water from the Ethiopian highlands 
to the southern third of the country, where there are large areas of 
relatively rich agricultural land. 

Climatically Somalia is dominated by the monsoon. The rainfall is usually 
low and irregular, with an average of about 600 mm in the south, 400 mm in 
the north-west, and only 50-100 mm in the intervening area, where there are 
patches of desert (Mudugh) and an arid climate with only seasonal water. 
There are four seasons, variable in extent and degree: Jilal from November 
to March - a dry period in the NE Monsoon; Gu from April to May - with the 
heaviest rain; Hagai from June to September - another dry season in the 
SW Monsoon; and Der in October and November - another rain period, but less 
copius. The country is characterized by unpredictable droughts, of which 
the most recent occurred in 1973 and 1979. 


BUSHLAND dominates the Somalia scene. Typically it constitutes a wide variety 
of woody plants, with Acacia and/or Commiphora less than 6 m high as dominants, 
but it varies greatly. In more arid areas it may be reduced to scattered low 
bushes, but at the other extreme may merge into woodland with emergent trees 
up to 12 m high. It may be dense and virtually impenetrable, even to elephants 
or more open and heavily grazed by domestic animals. We do not have the 
knowledge at present to delineate these various categories, and it would be 
futile for us to do so unless it can be related to bird distribution. Much 
more needs to be done in this field. Probably 80-90 per cent of the country 
is covered by bushland, and only relatively small areas of the following 
habitat types. 

LOWLAND FOREST is now confined to parts of the Juba valley and the extreme 
southerly tip of the country. These areas consist of mixed deciduous tropical 
species, but are disappearing rapidly, particularly along the Juba, before the 
advance of development schemes. However, some extensive tracts still remain, 
particularly in the far south. 

HIGHLAND FOREST in the northern mountains is restricted to areas behind and 
between Berbera and Bosaso. This Juniper forest has decreased greatly in 
recent years, and the preserved areas suffer a steady degradation through use 
by man and domestic animals. 

WOODLANDS as such are largely riverine, and are now reduced to quite small 
areas along the two southern river systems, or else are pure stands of Acacia. 
This habitat category is poorly delineated, for on the one hand it intergrades . 
with forest (which we have classified as having a denser understory and a more 1 

closed canopy) and on the other hand with bushland. 

GRASSLANDS still exist as huge expanses on the northern plateau, and along the 
eastern maritime plain. Mostly they are heavily grazed, and extend into areas 
which can be designated as grassy bushland (or bushed grassland) . 

WETLANDS fall into a variety of categories. Few if any, are permanent, 
although the two southern rivers are nearly so. However, periodically they 
stop flowing and may even dry up. The great swamps and marshlands associated 
with these two rivers also dry up at times, and this is probably a factor 
which limits the distribution of a larger permanent avifauna. Seasonal areas 
of inundation are also associated with these rivers and are important for 
birds. Of special interest throughout the country are the many ephemeral 
rainpools which form after rain. Some of these may remain for several weeks 
and are of importance for migrants. Man-made wetlands include dams, water 
storage pools (ballis) , and irrigated areas. Otherwise there are few wet 
sites except round wells and the few permanent springs. 

COASTAL (LITTORAL) habitat is variable also. Much of the coastline is rocky, 
interspersed with long strips of sandy shore, arid stretches of it are backed 
by dune systems. In some places, such as along the north-east coast and at 
Hafun, extensive cliffs exist. There are scattered areas of mangroves, a few 
tidal creeks and some lagoons. Small islands occur off Zeila and at Mait in 
the Gulf of Aden, and the chain of Bajun islands extend south of Kismayu to 
the Kenya border. Elsewhere there are a few small islets. 

CULTIVATION, except in irrigated areas in proximity to the two rivers, is 
seasonal and follows the rains. Large areas in the north-west and in the 
inter- riverine area in the south are devoted tQ cereal production, and are 
entirely rainfed. Elsewhere cropping is less regular, and may fail entirely 
in some seasons through lack of rain. 


We have followed the order and nomenclature of Britton (1980) , For 
nomenclature this is essentially that of White (1960, 1961, 1962a, 1962b, 
1963, 1965) and to a lesser extent Vaurie (1959, 1965). For order, this 
follows Wetmore (1960) at familial level, but more recent modifications 
have been taken into account; and for sub-families follows Thomson (1964) . 
Genera, species and subspecies are listed in alphabetical sequence. 
Although we do not necessarily agree with all the modifications in Britton, 
we have retained them in order to achieve some degree of stability. 


Our policy has again been much the same as that of Britton (1980) with 
regard to literature search, although we have drawn more heavily on our own 
data (e.g. over 70 per cent of the data used in a total of nearly 12 000 
observations forming the basis of the distribution data are our own) . 
Two major works, Archer & Godman (1937, 1961) and Moltoni & Ruscone (1940- 
1944) , cover the birds of ex-British Somaliland and ex-Italian Somaliland 

respectively, together now forming the present-day Democratic Republic of 
Somalia. These authors overlooked a number of earlier records, as no doubt 
we shall do also, but together with our own material they formed the basis 
of our lists, to which have been added other records from before and since 
their dates of publication. All other traceable scattered literature has 
been abstracted, and we have made considerable efforts to trace original 
sources to substantiate quoted literature, No attempt has been made to 
provide references for all the source material, but these are all in our 
files. We hope to publish a complete bibliography in the future. 

We have been unable to examine any museum material, although undoubtedly 
some exists for which there are no published details, particularly in Italy. 
However, Dr D.W. Snow kindly made available all his lists used in the 
preparation of his Atlas (Snow 1978), and G.R. Cunningham-van Someren 
provided lists of all specimens from Somalia in the National Museum in 

Some personal observations have been provided by a few recorders, and 
these are acknowledged below. The deadline for records was 31 December 1981. 


In the space available only general and brief comments can be given on 
status. These are essentially subjective impressions, but nevertheless 
provide a rough indication. Several difficulties arise, particularly in 
relation to the classification of records, so that the numbers of records 
do not necessarily indicate a species* relative abundance. For example, 
a single bird on one day is just as much a record as 10 000 on another; if, 
say, two vagrants have been collected in a given area on subsequent days 
they are included as two records, in the same way as they would be if they 
were a year apart. We have used the following terms to indicate decreasing 
degrees of abundance: abundant (common in large numbers), very common (inter- 
mediate category) , common (usually recorded) , reasonably common (recorded on 
50-60 per cent of occasions), rather uncommon (intermediate category), uncommon 
(recorded on 20-30 per cent of occasions) , very uncommon (recorded on 5-20 per 
cent of occasions) , rare (very unlikely to be recorded) scarce (few recorded) , 
vagrant (1-2 records only) . "Occasions" refer to day visits to suitable habitat. 

Species are categorized as : migrants (being either intra-Af rican or Palae- 
arctic, except in a few unusual cases) , partial migrants (in which some part 
of the population migrates) , wanderers (apparently aimless, nomadic or ill- 
defined movements) , resident (apparently always present and breed in the area) , 
presumed resident (indicates apparent breeding, but not proven. Months are 
given for when migrants have been recorded, and in the case of a species 
recorded a few times only. Those species for which there are ten records or 
fewer are indicated by a cross (+) . 


We have laid particular emphasis on distribution, regarding which many new 
data are presented which extend considerably the known range of many species. 
In the comments under species we have attempted to summarize distribution 

briefly, using geographical co-ordinates to a large extent rather than 
place names. We also list every half-degree square from which each species 
is known, so that by reference to the grid map (Fig. 1) a more exact 
appreciation of a species' range can be obtained. Each degree square is 
allocated a number and the four half-degree squares within each on is lettered 
a,b,c,d, as shown in Fig.l. A similar system is being used in other African 
countries (Ash & Pomeroy 1981) . 

With few exceptions most of the distribution records are from this century, 
and the majority were made by ourselves in 1978-1981. At a later stage we 
plan to evaluate present-day distribution (post- 1970) against earlier records. 

Little information is available on the altitudinal distribution of species 
in Somalia, and mostly we have only made rather general comments. However, 
from the remarks on topography, in combination with the grid map data, much 
information can be deduced. We have used widely self-explanatory terms such 
as 'northern mountains', 'plateau', 'lowlands', and 'coastal'. Half-degree 
squares in which breeding has been recorded are listed separately, and in a 
few cases where breeding has occurred but the locality or square number is 
unknown this has been mentioned in the text. 

The boundaries used are those indicated on the old series of maps issued 
by the British War Office (G.S.G.S 4355. Third Edition). 


We have divided the species of birds recorded in Somalia into five categories, 
which are listed as follows: 

List A. Species recorded in Somalia. The substantive list of all 
species reliably recorded in Somalia. 

List B. Species recorded off-shore, out of sight of land. These 
may be expected as additions to List a in time. 

List C. Species for which confirmation of specimen identification 
is required. 

List D. Species and subspecies not considered acceptable for inclusion 
in List A. These are birds which have been recorded in Somalia 
at one time or another, but are not now regarded by us as 
acceptable . 

List E. Hybrids recorded from Somalia. 

We propose to provide periodic amendments to these lists. 


Each species is listed under a Family (and Sub- family where appropriate) 
heading, with the following information (in sequence) : 

a. Sequential number in the Somalia list (this is italicized in the case of 
species for which there are no previous published records, and such 
additions are practically all a result of our own observations; full 
substantiating details for these are given in Ash (In prep.) 

b. Scientific name. This is given as a trinomial where only one subspecies 
(race) is recorded; otherwise only the specific name is given and sub- 
species are listed below. 

c. English name. 

d. An asterisk is added for those species recorded from within 40 km of 
Mogadishu . 

e. A cross is added for those species for which there are ten or fewer 
records in the country. 

f. For ease of cross-reference the species number in Mackworth-Praed & 
Grant (1957, 1960) is shown on the right hand side. 

g. Subspecies are listed where appropriate. 

h. A concise resume of known status, distribution, habitat and times of 

occurrence is given, together with an attempt in some cases to separate 
old from recent data. Old records are those prior to 1960. 

i. Finally, all half-degree squares from which the species has been recorded 
are listed in sequence; squares in which the species has bred are listed 


To avoid possible confusion between page numbers and sequential list 
numbers, the latter only are given in the English and scientific names' 
indices. As a further aid in the rapid location of a species, the sequential 
numbers listed on each page are shown in the top outer corner of each page. 


Berber a 





10'26'N, 45"02'E 

10°10'N, 45°08'E 

11 P 17'N, 49°10'E 

1°06'N, 44°03'E 

10 o 25'N, 51"20 , E 

Mait Island 
Me re a 

00°22'S, 42°32'E 

11°16'N, 47° 15'E 

1°43'N, 44°47'E 

2°03'N 45°21'E 

11°21'N, 43°28'E 


Numbers of: Numbers 

Species recorded. 639 

Species breeding 263 

Palaearctic migrants (minimum) 149+ 


Endemic species , 6 0.9 

Species recorded 10 or fewer times 188 29 

Species recorded within 40 km of Mogadishu.. 371 58 

Half-degree squares on distribution map 259 

Half-degree squares with recorded data 198 76 

Half-degree squares visited by authors 147 57 


Many people have helped to varying degrees in a number of ways and we wish 
to thank them all, but our first thanks go to our wives for their long- 
suffering indulgence of our mode of life. For the provision of valuable data: 
G.R. Cunningham- van Someren and Dr D.W. Snow; for the provision of field data: 
R.G. Allan, Dr D.A. Baird, Dr K. Curry-Lindhal , Dr C.C.H. Elliott and J. Haslam; 
for help over specimens or identifications: P. Angle, P.R. Colston, 
G.R. Cunningham- van Someren, Dr A. A. Karani, Dr S.L. Olson, Dr C. Smeenk, 
Dr D.W. Snow, Dr G.E. Watson; for great help in the field: Ali A. Murshid; 
for valuable correspondence: Dr W.R.P. Bourne, P.L. Britton, Dr E.K. Dunn, 
Dr C.J. Feare, Dr D.W. Snow, M.P. Walters; for vital editorial help: 
G.C. Backhurst; for help over literature: Dr R.S. Bailey, Dr W.R.P. Bourne, 
Ms D. Curcio, Ms K. Pruitt, Ms M. Reynolds; for an exacting typing task: 
Sylvia (Mighty Mouse) Francis and M. Srinivasan; for mimeography of drafts 
of List A: B. Johansson; for the art-work: G.C. Backhurst for the map and 
Dr Caroline Bishop for the frontispiece and for comments on the manuscript: 
R.J. Douthwaite and Dr D.J. Pearson. 

J.S. Ash, Division of Birds, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian 

Institution, Washington D.C., 20560, U.S.A. 

J.E. Miskell, CARE, c/o VNHCR, P.O. Box 2925, Mogadishu, Somalia. 

Mogadishu, 1 January 1982. 

41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 


Figure 1. Map of Somalia showing the V2-degree grid system used in plotting 
bird distribution 




72 Sequential number in italics = species added by the authors 

* Recorded within 40 km of Mogadishu 

+ Recorded not more than 10 times in Somalia 

A&G Archer & Godman (1937 and/or 1961) 


1. Struthio camelus molybdophanes Ostrich* 1 
Locally common and widespread resident (decreasing in many areas) , in 
grasslands and open bushland, but apparently absent from large western 
area in south. 6c, 9a, lOd, lie, 13a, 14c, 18d, 19bc, 21bd, 22a. 23a, 
25a, 29ab, 30abc, 31ad, 33b, 35bc, 37a, 38bd, 43c, 49b, 50b, 51a, 57d, 

58a, 63cd, 66d, 67d, 71d, 74b. Breeding: 63c. 


2. Tachybaptus ruficollis capensis Little Grebe* 4 
Locally common resident, exploiting seasonal freshwater wetlands, in NW 
east to 47° E, once in central area, and in easterly areas of south below 
3°N. 10a, 19a, 20b, 28b, 41c, 62b, 63ac, 68bc, 71bd, 72a, 74b, 75a. 
Breeding: 63c, 68b, 71b. 

Family PROCELLARIIDAE Petrels, Shearwaters 

3. Bulweria fallax Jouanin's Petrel*+ 13A 
Probably commoner non-breeding visitor than the 10 records indicate, 
especially in north; in coastal sea-areas of the NE and SE, May and Jul- 
Sep. 3c, 6ab, 7a, 13a, 63d, 69a, 72b, 76a. 

4. Pachyptila desolata desolata Dove Prion*+ 

A recent coastal 'wreck' occurred in the SE in Aug. 63d, 69a. 

5. Pterodroma brevirostris Kerguelen Petrel*+ 
Once recently on SE coast in Sep. 63d. 

6. Puffinus Iherminieri Audubon's Shearwater? 9 
P.l. bailloni? , P.J. persicus . Abundant non-breeding visitor in north, 
scarcer in south, to coastal sea-areas; mostly persicus in Mar-Oct, but 
birds in the south in Nov are suspected to be bailloni. 3c, 4cd, 6ab, 7a, 
16d, 17c, 25a, 63ca, 69a. 

7. Puffinus pacificus Weage-tailea Shearwater* 10 
Apparently not uncommon non-breeaing visitor to coastal sea-areas in NE 
ana SE, Apr- Jul , ana once each in Sep, Nov. 3c, 17c, 57a, 63c, 64b, 69a. 

Family HYDROBATIDAE Storm Petrels 

8. Oceanites oceanicus oceanicus Wilson's Storm Petrel* 7 
Frequent non-breeaing visitor to coastal sea-areas, Apr-May, Jul-Nov; 
large northerly passage early May off SE coast. 3c, 6ab, 7a, 17c, 25ba, 


32bc, 51a, 63c, 64b, 69a, 74b. 

Family PHAETHONTIDAE Tropicbirds 

9. Phaethon aethereus indicus Red-billed Tropicbird* 16 
Locally common visitor to NE coast, Apr - Nov, where breeds in at least 
one site j recorded 3 times in SE in Jul, Sep, Dec. 3c, 7ac, 17c, 25bd, 
63d, 69a. Breeding: 3c. 

Family PELECANIDAE Pelicans 

10. Pelecanus onocrotalus White Pelican* 31 
Irregular, occasionally numerous, non-breeding visitor, mainly to 
seasonal wetlands below 3°N; 3 times on NW coast; throughout year. 

10a, lie, 62d, 63c, 66d, 68b, 71d, 74b. 

11. Pelecanus rufescens Pink-backed Pelican* 32 
Fairly common and widespread African visitor, no breeding records; 

to north coast and inland areas in NW, and in south below 3°N. 2c, 3c, 
4c, 5c, lOac, lie, 13a, 18a, 19a, 62d, 63bc, 66ad, 67ac, 68b, 71bd, 
72a, 73d, 74b. 

Family SULIDAE Boobies 

12. Sula dactylatra melanops Masked Booby 22 
Locally common visitor to northern coasts May - Nov; breeding Mait Is. 
2a, 3c, 7a, 13a, 17c. Breeding: 3c. 

13. Sula leucogaster leucogaster Brown Booby+ 19 
Locally numerous non-breeding visitor to northern coasts, Apr - May; 
once in south. 2a, 3c, 13a, 17c, 64a. 

14. Sula sula Red-footed Booby*+ 20 
Very rare; 3 coastal records in SE in May, Oct, Nov; race unknown. 69a. 


15. Phalacrocorax africanus africanus Long-tailed Cormorant* 27 
Locally numerous visitor most months to southern inland wetlands south 

of 3°N; rare in north. No evidence of breeding. 19a, 63abc, 66d, 67c, 
68abc, 71bd, 72a, 74b, 75a. 

16. Phalacrocorax carbo lucidus Greater Cormorant 25 
Locally numerous most months to southern inland wetlands, where breeds, 
south of 2°N; two very doubtful old north coast records. 66d, 67c, 68b, 
71d, 72a, 74b. Breeding: 68b, 74b. 

17. Phalacrocorax nigrogularis Socotran Cormorant+ 26 
Locally abundant non-breeding visitor to NE coasts, Apr - May. 3c, 4c, 
6b, 7a, 17c. 

Family ANHINGIDAE Darters 

18. Anhinga rufa rufa Darter* 28 
Locally common non-breeding visitor to southern wetlands south of 3°N 

in most months. 60a, 63abc, 66d, 67c, 68b, 7 Id, 72a, 73d, 74b. 



Family FREGATIDAE Frigatebirds 

19. Fregata ariel iredalei Lesser Frigatebird*+ 30 
Rare; of 8 records of frigatebirds involving 12 birds in Jul-Dec, 7 
birds in south and 2 in north are this species; 3 other birds in south 
probably also were; all except 1 record are recent. 2a, 63c, 69a. 

Family ARDEIDAE Herons, Bitterns, Egrets 
Sub- family Botaurinae 

20. Ixobrychus minutus Little Bittern 50 
I.m. minutus; I.m. payesii. Locally common visitor, possibly resident, 
in inland wetland areas, all in south below 2°N except for one old record 
in north, Mar, Jun-Aug, Oct, Dec (African payesii) ; Palaearctic minutus 
recorded once in NE in Apr. lie, 68abc {payesii) ; 16c (minutus); 71d 75b. 

21. Ixobrychus sturmii Dwarf Bittern* 51 
Locally common in southern inland wetlands south of 3 P N, and possibly 
resident, May, Aug-Nov: probably much overlooked. 63abc, 68ab, 73d, 75ab. 

Sub- family Ardeinae 

22. Ardea cinerea cinerea Grey Heron* 33 
Locally fairly common widespread non-breeding visitor of unknown origin 
to coastal and inland wetlands; unrecorded 3-7° N. 4d, 5c, 6abc, lOac, 
llbc, 16c, 19a, 20a, 28b, 35b, 63bcd, 64c, 66d f 67c, 68ab, 69a, 71bd, 
72a, 74bc, 75bd. 

23. Ardea goliath Goliath Heron* 35 
Rather uncommon widespread visitor to NW coast and on coast and inland 
in south below 5°N; has bred once in NW. 2ac, lie, 48a, 53b, 60c, 62d, 
63abcd, 66d, 67c, 68b, 69a, 71bd, 72ac, 74abc, 75bc. Breeding: 2c. 

24. Ardea melanocephala Black-headed Heron* 34 
Common breeding resident in south below 5°N; on grassland, dunes and 
wetlands; scarce visitor to NW with 3 records, lie, 18d, 28b, 45c, 48a, 
49b, 54cd, 60d, 61b, 62bd, 63abcd, 66bd, 67acd, 68abc, 69a, 70b, 71abd, 
72a, 73d, 74ab, 75ab. Breeding: 63b, 68b. 

?5. Ardea purpurea purpurea Purple Heron* 36 

Found recently to be a rather uncommon visiter locally in most months 
south of 3°N to inland wetlands; occasional on coast; possibly breeds; 
a northern April bird may have been a Palaearctic migrant. 16c, 63bc, 
68ab, 69a, 71d, 74b. 

?6. Ardeola idae Madagascar Squacco Heron*+ 44 

Rare; two records, May, Aug, of an African migrant to southern inland 
wetlands below 3°N. 63ac. 

11. Ardeola ralloides ralloides Squacco Heron* 43 

Locally common, presumably both African and Palaearctic migrants to 
southern inland wetlands south of 3° N in all months; rare in NW west 
of 46° E; majority Aug-Mar, none Jun. lie, 19ac, 20b, 63ab, 66d, 67c, 
68ab, 69a, 71d, 72ac, 74bc, 75ab. 

1 1 


28. Bubulcus ibis ibis Cattle Egret* 42 
Abundant non-breeding visitor to southern grasslands and wetlands south 

of 5°N; rare in NW west of 47°E. lie, 19ac, 28b, 48a, 62d, 68abc, 66d, 
67acd, 68abc, 69a, 70bd, 71bd, 72ac, 73d, 74abc, 75abd. 

29. Butorides striatus Green-backed Heron* 45-46 
B.s.atricapillus; B.s. brevipes . Fairly common and widespread presumed 
resident in mangroves, rocky shores and inland wetlands; brevipes 

occurs along northern coasts, whilst atricapillus occurs inland in 
the NW and also below 5°N; race of birds on east coast unknown. 
2c, 3c, 6b, lOac, lie, 17c, 18ab, 35b, 44d, 45c, 48a, 60a, 63abc, 66ad, 
67c, 68b, 69a, 71bd, 72a, 73d, 74bc, 75b. 

30. Egretta alba melanorhynchos Great White Egret* 37 
Fairly common, possibly both resident and Palaearctic migrant, all months, 
in coastal, and especially inland wetland sites, widely south of 4° N; no 
breeding records. 53c, 62d, 63abc, 64a, 66d, 67c, 68b, 69a, 71bd, 72a, 
73d, 74bc, 75abc. 

31 . Egretta ardesiaca Black Heron* 39 
Infrequent non-breeding visitor Oct-May to inland wetlands and 
occasionally coast south of 2°N, and twice in north coast lagoons. 

6b, 63bc, 67c, 68b, 69a, 71d, 72ac. 

32. Egretta garzetta garzetta Little Egret* 40 
Common non-breeding visitor of unknown origin, much scattered in all 
months, but mostly south of 2°N. 2c, 5c, 7a, 10a, 15a, 16c, 19a, 30c, 
41c, 63abc, 66d, 67c, 68ab, 71bd, 72ac, 74abc, 75bd. 

33. Egretta gularis asha African Reef Heron* 41 
Locally very common and widespread in coastal habitats south to 1°30'N 
all months; breeds in NW; a dimorphic species with intergrades. 

2c, 3c, 5c, 6b, 7a, lOd, lie, 13a, 17c, 35b, 63bc, 68b, 69a. 
Breeding: 2c. 

34. Egretta intermedia brachyrhyncha Yellow-billed Egret* 38 
Locally numerous non-breeding visitor to southern inland wetlands south 

of 4°N. 53c, 63ac, 68ab, 71bd, 72a, 75abd. 

35. Nycticorax nycticorax nycticorax Night Heron* 48 
Locally common non-breeding visitor of unknown origin, but possibly 
resident, in most months in coastal and inland sites north of 9°N and 
south of 5°N. 2c, 6b, 10a, 16c, 18b, 19a, 48a, 63ac, 66c, 67c, 68b, 

69a, 71d, 72a, 73d, 74b. 

Family SCOPIDAE Hamerkop 

36. Scopus umbretta umbretta Hamerkop* 53 
Widespread fairly common resident in inland wetlands in NW, west of 

46°E, and south of 5°N. 10a, lie, 18ab, 19ab, 20ac, 44d, 53c, 60a, 
62d, 63abc, 66cd, 67acd, 68ab, 71bd, 72a, 73d, 74b, 75ab. 
Breeding: lie, 63b, 68b, 70d, 7 Id, 73d. 



Family CICONIIDAE Storks 
Sub-family Ciconiinae 

Anastomus lamelligerus lamelligerus Open-billed Stork* 59 

Locally abundant, breeding resident and apparently non-breeding visitor 
to southern inland wetlands south of 3°N; all months. Once in NW. 19a, 
62d, 63abc, 66acd, 67cd, 68ab, 69a, 71bd, 72ac, 73d, 74b, 75ab. 
Breeding: 74b. 

Ciconia abdimii Abdim's Stork* 58 

Locally abundant in NW (Apr - Sep) and south of 3°N (Oct - Apr) 
non-breeding visitor, except for one nest in NW, to grasslands and 
coastal dunes. 2c, 10a, 18b, 19c, 20c, 61a, 63acd, 67a, 68b, 69 a , 
71bd. Breeding: 10a. 

Ciconia ciconia ciconia White Stork*+ 55 

A rare Palaearctic migrant with 3 old records in north and one in south, 
Aug, Oct, Mar, Jun. 18a, 19a, 63c. 

Ciconia episcopus microscelis Woolly-necked Stork* 57 

Sometimes very common locally inland in southern wetlands below 3°N, 
most months; has bred once. 61a, 63cd, 66cd, 67a, 71bd, 75b. 
Breeding: 7 Id. 

Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis Saddle-billed Stork* 60 

Uncommon non-breeding visitor Dec - Aug to southern inland wetlands 
south of 3°N. 62d, 63abc, 66d, 67c, 68abc, 71d, 72a. 

Leptoptilos crumeniferus Marabou* 61 

Widespread and locally abundant non-breeding visitor in most months, 
in wide range of habitats, in NW east to 46° E and especially in south 
below 6°N. 19a, '20c, 40c, 41c, 48ac, 53bc, 56d, 60c, 62d, 63abc, 66ad, 
67acd, 68ab, 69a, 71bd, 72abc, 73d, 74abc, 75ab. 

Sub-family Mycteriinae 

Mycteria ibis Yellow-billed Stork* 62 

Locally very common non-breeding visitor in all months to coast and, 
especially inland wetlands in NW west of 45° E and in south below 5°N. 
2c, 9c, 19a, 45c, 60a, 61a, 62d, 63abc, 66acd, 67cd, 68bc, 69a, 71bd, 
72a, 73d, 74abc. 

Family THRESKIORNITHIDAE Ibises, Spoonbills 
Sub-family Threskiornithinae 

Bostrychia hagedash brevirostris Hadada* 65 

Locally common, apparently non-breeding visitor, to inland and coastal 
sites south of 5°N, all months. 48a, 53b, 60c, 62d, 63abcd, 66acd, 67c, 
68abc, 69a, 71bd, 72a, 73d, 74bc, 75ab. 

Gcronticus ercmitus Bald Ibis+ 64 

One old record of this Palaearctic migrant in the NW in Sep. 18a. 



46. Plegadis falcinellus falcinellus Glossy Ibis* 68 
Locally numerous common and widespread non-breeding visitor, probably 
including Palaearctic migrants, all months on inland wetlands in NW 

west of 45°E and especially in south below 3°N. 10a, lie, 19a, 62d, 
63abc, 66d, 67c, 68ab, 71d, 72ac, 73d, 74b. 

47. Threskiornis aethiopica aethiopica Sacred Ibis* 63 
Locally abundant and widespread, apparently non-breeding visitor, in 

wide range of coastal and inland sites, all months. 10a, 16c, 18a, 19a, 
30c, 35b, 48a, 54d, 56b, 60d, 62bd, 63abcd, 64a, 66cd, 67cd, 68abc, 69a, 
70b, 71bcd, 72ac, 73d, 74bc, 75abd. 

Sub-family Plataleinae 

48. Platalea alba African Spoonbill* 70 
Common and widespread non-breeding visitor in all months to southern 
inland wetlands and coast south of 4°N; twice in NW. 19a, 53b, 61a, 

62d, 63abc, 66d, 67c, 68ab, 71d, 72ac, 73d, 74bc, 75a. 

49. Platalea leucorodia Eurasian Spoonbill 69 
P.l. archeri; P.l. leucorodia. Very common breeding resident on NW coast 

(archer i) ; only 1 certain and old record of Palaearctic leucorodia on 
Juba in Jul. 2c, 10c, lie, (archeri), 53b, (leucorodia). Breeding: 2c. 


50. Phoeniconaias minor Lesser Flamingo+ 72 
Vagrant, one old previously unpublished record on NW coast in Mar. 10a. 

51. Phoenicopterus ruber roseus Greater Flamingo* 71 
Locally common non-breeding visitor all months, coastal lagoons; once 
inland (ringed as young in Iran). 2c, lOac, lie, 18a, 35b, 63ac, 69a, 74b. 

Family ANATIDAE Ducks, Geese 
Sub-family Anserinae 

52. Dendrocygna bicolor Fulvous Whistling Duck* 95 
Locally abundant non-breeding visitor in most months to inland wetlands 
south of 3°N. 62d, 63c, 68ab, 71bd, 72ac, 73d. 

53. Dendrocygna viduata White-faced Whistling Duck* 94 
Locally abundant visitor in all months to southern inland wetlands 

south of 3°N; only one breeding record. 62d, 63abc, 66d, 68abc, 71bd, 
72ac, 75ad. Breeding: 68b. 

Sub-family Anatinae 

54. Alopochen aegyptiacus Egyptian Goose* 99 
Fairly common and widespread visitor in small numbers, but few breed, 

to seasonal and permanent inland wetlands; occasionally on coast; 
absent from NE. lOac, lie, 18ab, 19ab, 20d, 21c, 35b, 41ac, 48a, 53b, 
56c, 60c, 61a, 62abd, 63abc, 66bd, 68abc, 69a, 70b, 71bd, 72c, 73d, 74b. 
Breeding: 10a, 19a. 

55. Anas acuta acuta Pintail* 9 

Occasionally abundant, although generally scarce, Palaearctic winter 




visitor, especially to southern inland wetlands, below 3°N, Oct - Feb. 
35b, 41c, 62b, 63c, 66d, 68b, 71d, 72c. 

56. Anas clypeata Shoveler*+ 80 
Rare Palaearctic visitor recorded on 6 occasions, once each on NW and 

SE coasts and on southern inland wetlands below 3°N, Nov, Jan - Feb. 
10a, 63cd, 68b. 

57. Anas crecca crecca Teal*+ 87 
Occasionally fairly numerous although generally scarce Palaearctic winter 
visitor, recorded on 8 occasions on southern inland wetlands and once in 
NW, Oct - Feb. 10a, lie, 41c, 63c, 66d, 68b, 71d, 72c. 

58. Anas erythrorhynchos Red-billed Teal* 91 
Fairly common visitor to southern inland wetlands, occasionally on coast 
south of 6°N, all months; one breeding record. 41c, 62d, 63abc, 66d, 
68bc, 69a, 7 Id, 72a, 74b. Breeding: 63c. 

59. Anas hottentota Hottentot Teal+ 90 
One old record in Jul - Aug on Juba. 7 Id 

60. Anas penelope Wigeon*+ 86 
Rare Palaearctic migrant with only 5 scattered records Nov - Apr, on 
coast and inland wetlands. 10a, 35b, 64a, 68b, 69a. 

61. Anas querquedula Garganey* 88 
Locally abundant Palaearctic visitor, Oct - May, to southern inland 
wetlands, and rarely on coast, south of 6°N; only 3 times north of 8°N. 
10a, 28b, 41c, 63c, 66d, 68b, 69a, 71d, 72c. 

62. Anas strepera strepera Gadwall+ 85 
Rare Palaearctic visitor with 2 old records in NW, Oct, Jan. 10a, 20a. 

63. Anas undulata rueppelli Yellow-billed Duck+ 83 
African wanderer with one old record in NW. 19b. 

64. Aythya fuligula Tufted Duck+ 78 
Rare Palaearctic visitor with 2 old records in NW, Dec - Jan. 10a. 

65. Netta erythrophthalma brunnea Southern Pochard* 77 
Rare African visitor with 6 recent and one old record on southern inland 
wetlands south of 3°N, Feb, May - Aug, Dec. 62d, 63a, 68b, 71d, 72c. 

66. Nettapus auritus African Pygmy Goose 97 
Only known from 2 southern inland wetlands, below 2°N, where presumably 
resident, but absent Dec - Feb. 68b, 7 Id. 

67. Sarkidiornis melanotos melanotos Knob-billed Duck* 98 
Sometimes abundant African visitor to southern inland wetlands below 

3°N in all months; no breeding records. 62d, 63ac, 66d , 67c, 68ab, 
71bd, 72ac, 73d, 74b, 75ab. 

68. Thalassornis leuconotus leuconotus White-backed Duck+ 74 
An old record of a pair on the Juba in Jun. 71b. 



Family SAGITTARIIDAE Secretary Bird 

69. Sagittarius serpentarius Secretary Bird 103 
An uncommon resident in the north above 8°N widely scattered on grassy 
plains and open bushland. 2c, 13c, 18ad, 19cd, 20ac, 22a, 29a. 
Breeding: 18d, 20c. 

Family ACCIPITRIDAE Birds of prey (Vultures, Eagles, Hawks, etc.) 
Sub- family Aegypiinae 

70. Gyps africanus African White-backed Vulture* 107 
Uncommon resident in NW west of 45° E and south of 4° N over open country 
and woodlands. 18ab, 19a, 55c, 62a, 63abc, 66d, 71ad, 73d, 74b, 75a. 
Breeding: 18a, 71d. 

71. Gyps rueppellii erlangeri Ruppell's Vulture+ 106 
Scarce wanderer with 3 old records from the NW. 8b, 9cd, 20a. 

72. Neophron monachus pileatus Hooded Vulture* 111 
Rather uncommon resident in NW west of 46° E and in south below 5°N, 
round villages and over open country. 2c, 8bd, lOac, llbc, 18ab, 19a, 
20abc, 48a, 63abc, 66cd, 67c, 71abd, 72a, 73d, 74b, 75ab. 

Breeding: 10a, llbc, 18a, 19a, 20abc. 

73. Neophron percnopterus percnopterus Egytian Vulture 110 
Widespread and common resident north of 8°N, south of where it is only 
occasionally seen south to 1°N; in almost any habitat. 2c, 4c, 5c, 6c, 
7a, 8abd, 9c, lOd, lie, 13ac, 14b, 15a, 16c, 17c, 18a, 19ab, 20abc, 22a, 
23a, 24ab, 25a, 29ad, 31cd, 33b, 35b, 41c, 50b, 55c, 60c, 62a, 67a. 
Breeding: lie, 19b, 20a. 

74. Torgos tracheliotus Lappet-faced Vulture 108 
Locally fairly common resident in NW west of 48° E, several records in 
south below 1°N, and once on the east coast, over open country and 
bushland. 10a, lie, 19ab, 20ac, 22a, 38d, 71abc, 75b. 

Breeding: 20ac. 

75. Trigonoceps occipitalis White-headed Vulture 109 
Fairly common resident in the NW to 46° E and occasional visitor to 
southern areas; round towns and open country. 10c, lie, 19ab, 20acd, 
45d, 71d. Breeding: lie, 20a. 

Sub- family Circinae 

76. Circus aeruginosus aeruginosus Eurasian Marsh Harrier* 184 
Fairly common Palaearctic migrant on passage and over-wintering over 
wetlands and open country in south below 3°N, Aug - Apr. 63bcd, 67c, 
68b, 69a, 71d, 72ac. 

77. Circus macrourus Pallid Harrier* 183 
Common Palaearctic migrant on passage and over-wintering in northern 

and southern open areas, Oct - May; unrecorded 3" - 9°N. 2c, 4c, lie, 
20bc, 24a, 63cd, 67c, 68b, 69a, 71d, 72a. 

78. Circus pygargus Montagu's Harrier* 182 
Locally common Palaearctic migrant on passage in northern and southern 



open areas, and over-wintering in south, Sep - Apr; unrecorded 3° - 9°N. 
lOac, 17c, 18a, 19d, 20a, 63cd, 66bd, 68b, 69a, 71d. 

Circus ranivorus African Marsh Harrier+ 184 

Three recent southern records in inland wetlands in Feb and Mar. 
67c, 68b, 72a. 

Sub-family Polyboroidinae 

Polyboroides radiatus typus Harrier Hawk+ 185 

Apparently a rare African visitor recorded on six occasions scattered 
in southern woodlands below 5°N. 48a, 60c, 63c, 7 Id. 

Sub-family Circaetinae 

Circaetus cinereus Brown Snake Eagle* 153 

Rather uncommon presumed resident widespread in open woodland and 
bushland north of 9°N and south of 4°N. 14c, 19b, 23a, 55c, 61c, 62a, 
63c, 68ac, 71bd, 74b, 75ab. 

Circaetus fasciolatus Southern Banded Snake Eagle+ 156 

Rare, presumed resident, recorded on 5 occasions in restricted area 
of Juba riverine forest. 71bd. 

Circaetus gallicus pectoralis Black-chested Snake Eagle* 154 

Common and widespread, locally numerous resident, over wide variety 
of open country and by coast, and bushland and woodlands; absent from 
NE. 2c, lOd, lie, 18ab, 19d, 20acd, 21d, 28b, 29d, 30c, 34a, 36d, 37a, 
38bd, 40d, 41c, 43d, 48a, 50ab, 53b, 54d, 56c, 58a, 61abc, 62ad, 63abc, 
66cd, 67cd, 68abc, 69a, 71bd, 72a, 73d, 75a. Breeding: 20a. 

Terathopius ecaudatus Bateleur* 159 

Fairly common and widespread resident over open country, bushland and 
woodlands. 2c, 6c, 8b, lie, 18b, 19ad, 20abcd, 31d, 38d, 53c, 54ac, 
55c, 60cd, 61a, 62ab, 63abc, 66d, 67acd, 68bc, 71abd, 72a, 73cd, 74ab, 
75abd. Breeding: lie, 19a, 20acd. 

Sub-family Accipitrinae 

Accipiter badius sphenurus Shikra* 176 

Fairly common and widespread resident, absent from 5° - 9°N, in woodland 
and bushland; many fewer modern records. 2c, 4c, 8d, lie, 14a, 18a, 
19ab, 20abc, 45c, 59d, 60cd, 61a, 63c, 66bd, 67a, 71bd, 75b. 
Breeding: 8d, lie, 19b, 20ac. 

Accipiter melanoleucus melanoleucus Great Sparrowhawk+ 174 

One old (Jul) and one recent (Oct) record from the north-western and 
southern extremities of the country. 2c, 74c. 

Accipiter minullus tropicalis Little Sparrowhawk* 170 

Frequent and widespread, presumed resident, of bushland and woodlands 
in eastern areas south of 3°N. 63c, 66d, 67c, 71bd, 72a, 74c, 75a. 



88. Accipiter nisus nisus Eurasian Sparrowhawk+ 169 
Rare Palaearctic migrant with one recent record in south in Dec 63c. 

89. Accipiter tachiro sparsimfasciatus African Goshawk+ 177 
Scarce breeding resident with one old and 3 recent records in Juba 
woodlands. 53a, 66cd, 7 Id. Breeding: 7 Id. 

90. Aquila nipalensis orientalis Steppe Eagle+ 138 
Palaearctic migrant with only one certain old record in NW in Feb; 
probably overlooked. 28b. 

91. Aquila rapax belisarius Tawny Eagle* 139 
Common and widespread resident, especially in north, over open country, 
bushland and open woodland. 2c, 8b, 9ac, lOad, lied, 13ac, 16c, 18ab, 
19ab, 20abcd, 21bd, 22a, 24abc, 28ab, 29d, 30c, 33bcd, 35b, 36d, 37ac, 
40cd, 41ac, 45c, 48ac, 53bd, 54ac, 56b, 59a, 60c, 61a, 62abd, 63c, 67c, 
68b, 71bd, 72a, 74b. Breeding: lie, 19b, 22a, 37a, 63c. 

92. Aquila verreauxi Verreaux's Eagle 136 
Probably 20-30 resident pairs in the mountains in NW. 4c, lie, 13a, 
14ab, 18a, 19b, 20a. Breeding: lie. 

93. Aquila wahlbergi Wahlberg's Eagle+ 142 
Rare, possibly resident, recorded recently once in NW and 6 times in 
the far south in woodland. 19a, 66d, 75abc. 

94. Butastur rufipennis Grasshopper Buzzard* 158 
Fairly common visitor to NW in Sep - Oct, and to south of 4°N all 
months, in bushland. lie, 18a, 19b, 20a, 52c, 61a, 63abc, 66d, 67a, 


95. Buteo augur archer i Augur Buzzard 167 
Not uncommon resident in northern mountains. 4c, lOd, lie, 13a, 14a, 
19b, 20a. Breeding: No square data. 

96. Buteo buteo vulpinus Common Buzzard+ 163 
Rare Palaearctic migrant with one recent record in Jan in southern 
woodland. 63c. 

97. Buteo rufinus rufinus Long-legged Buzzard+ 166 
Rare Palaearctic migrant with only one old record in Jan in NW. 20a. 

98. Hieraaetus dubius Ayres ' Hawk Eagle+ 144 
Rare, presumed resident, with 2 old and one recent record in Juba 
woodlands. 60c, 7 Id. 

99. Hieraaetus pennatus pennatus Booted Eagle* 145 
Recently found to be a common over-wintering Palaearctic migrant, Oct - 
Apr, over woodland, bushland and especially open country between 

3°30 , N and equator. 55c, 62ad, 63ac, 66d, 68ab, 69a, 71d, 72a. 

100. Hieraaetus spilogaster African Hawk Eagle* 143 

Locally fairly common and widespread resident in woodland and rocky 
places; unrecorded 5 - 8 N. 4c, lie, 13a, 14a, 16a, 18ab, 19ab, 20ac, 



28a, 48cd, 55c, 60c, 61a, 62a, 63c, 71bd, 74c, 75bd. 
Breeding: 19ab, 75b. 

101. Kaupifalco monogrammicus Lizard Buzzard 150 
Apparently uncommon and local presumed resident in restricted areas of 
southern woodlands below l o 30'N. 66c, 71bd, 75b. 

102. Lophaetus occipitalis Long-crested Eagle*+ 149 
Rare African wanderer with 5 scattered records in Sep and Dec - Mar, 

2 old and 3 recent; 1 in NW, the rest south of 3°N. 19a, 63c, 68b, 7 Id. 

103. Melierax gabar Gabar Goshawk* 178 
Fairly common and widespread resident, but unrecorded 5° - 8°N, in 
woodland and bushland. 6c, 8d, 9c, lie, 13a, 18b, 19abc, 20abc, 28b, 
45c, 53b, 60c, 62bd, 63bcd, 66d, 67cd, 7 Id, 72a, 73d, 74bc, 75b. 
Breeding: lie, 20ab, 63c. 

104. Melierax metabates r:,etabates Dark Chanting Goshawk+ 180 
One old record on NW border. 8b. 

105. Melierax poliopterus Pale Chanting Goshawk* 179 
Common and widespread resident of bushland and open arid country. 

2c, 4c, 6c, 8b, 9a, lOacd, lie, 12c, 14c, 15b, 16d, 18ab, 19ab, 
20abcd, 24c, 28ab, 31a, 33bcd, 34d, 35abc, 36d, 37ac, 38bd, 40cd, 
41abc, 48acd, 50bc, 51a, 53abcd, 54a, 56bcd, 57bd, 58a, 60ac, 61ac, 
62abd, 63abcd, 64c, 66bd, 67ad, 68abc, 69a, 71bd, 72ab, 73d, 74abc, 
75abcd. Breeding: 2c. 

106. Polemaetus bellicosus Martial Eagle 146 
An uncommon resident and wanderer widespread over open country, 
bushland and woodland, west of 46°E in NW, and below 7°N. 18b, 19b, 
20acd, 38b, 53b, 58a, 63a, 67d, 68a, 71bd, 73d, 74b, 75a. 

Breeding: 19b, 20c. 

Sub-family Milvinae 

107. Haliaeetus vocifer African Fish Eagle* 160 
Fairly common resident in south associated with rivers and wetlands 

and sometimes sea coast south of 5°N; once in NW. lie, 45d, 63abc, 
66cd, 67cd, 68ab, 71bcd, 72a, 73d, 74bc, 75ab, Breeding: 68b, 71d. 

108. Milvus migrans Black Kite* 132 
M.m. aegyptius; M.m. migrans. Locally common resident and migrant, 
but unrecorded between 5° and 9°N, inexplicably scarce in, or absent 
from many areas; widespread in almost any habitat, including sea- 
cliffs. 2c, 4c, 5c, 8b, 9a, lOac, lie, 14a, 18ab, 19ab, 20a, 45c, 50b, 
53b, 54a, 57d, 60ac, 61a, 62bd, 63abcd, 66cd, 67acd, 68abc, 69a, 71bd, 
72ac, 73d, 74ab, 75abd. Breeding: 2c, 4c, 10a, 14a, 60c, 63c, 69a. 

Sub-family Perninae 

109. Aviceda cuculoides verreauxii Cuckoo Hawk+ 130 
Five recent records, Sep - Oct, in southern woodlands below 1°N, where 
probably resident. 7 Id, 75a. 



Sub-family Elaninae 

110. Chelictinia riocourii Swallow- tailed Kite*+ 131 
Nine recent and one old record, Jan - Apr, Sep and Nov, very scattered 
over bushland and open country and clearly wanders widely, but status 
unknown. 2c, 13a, 40c, 63d, 67c, 68bc, 71d, 72a. 

111. Elanus caeruleus caeruleus Black-shouldered Kite* 133 
Rare in NW and uncommon but widespread in south below 4°N, but status 
not understood. 18a, 19a, 20c, 54cd, 61ab, 62d, 63abc, 66cd, 67c, 
68abc, 69a, 70d, 7 Id, 72a, 74b, 75a. 

Sub- family Macheiramphinae 

112. Macheiramphus alcinus anderssoni Bat Hawk+ 134 
Rare visitor with one old record from indefinite locality in north and 
one recent in south. 7 Id. 

Family PANDIONIDAE Osprey 

113. Pandion haliaetus haliaetus Osprey* 186 
Common Palaearctic migrant over-wintering, and presumed passage migrant, 
on coasts, Sep - Apr; a few over-summer in south; some breeding 
residents in NW; only 3 inland records. 2ac, 3c, 4cd, 10c, lie, 13a, 
17c, 63cd, 64a, 68bc, 69a, 74abc. Breeding: 2ac. 

Family FALCONIDAE Falcons 

114. Falco awurensis Eastern Red-footed Falcon+ 120 
Recently found to be locally numerous Palaearctic migrant on spring 
passage in Apr in south; one old east coast record in Jan. 43d, 63ac. 

115. Falco biarmicus abyssinicus Lanner Falcon 113 
Fairly common visitor and resident in the north above 9°N in open and 
rocky country. 2c, 3c, 4d, 10c, lie, 13c, 14a, 16c, 18a, 19ab, 20abc, 
24c. Breeding: 19b, 20a. 

116. Falco chicquera ruficollis Red-necked Falcon*+ 122 
One recent Jan/Feb record of a vagrant in the south. 63c. 

117. Falco concolor Sooty Falcon+ 118 
Rare spring passage migrant of a species breeding further north with 

6 records in NW and extreme west 5-22 May; 3 more 21-22 Jun. 
3c, 9c, 19a, 20ac, 52c. 

118. Falco eleonorae Eleonora's Falcon 117 
Palaearctic migrant only known on spring passage, apparently not 
uncommonly, at one site in NW in Apr - May. 20a. 

119. Falco naumanni Lesser Kestrel*+ 126 
A scarce Palaearctic migrant with 5 scattered records in Apr, Oct 

and Dec. 20a, 48c, 63ac, 69a. 

120. Falco pelegrinoides pelegrinoides Barbary Falcon 112 
At least 10 old and one recent record in NW, Jun - Sep and Jan, where 
apparently resident; in open rocky country. 13a, 18b, 19a, 20cd. 



Falco peregrinus Peregrine Falcon* 112 

F.p. minor; F.p. calidus. Four old records of African minor in the 
NW and west, 2 in Sep: Palaearctic migrant calidus on passage and 
over-wintering inland, but mainly on coasts, Oct - Apr, rare in north, 
but not uncommon in south; status of birds in south May - Jul uncertain. 
2c, 6b, lie, 13a, 18a, 19a, 28b, 41c, 63c, 68b, 69a. 

Falco rupicoloides fieldi White-eyed Kestrel* 124 

Fairly common and widespread resident in north above 6°N extending as 
visitor down east coast to Mogadishu, in open bushland and grassy 
plains and dunes. 2c, 9a, lid, 13ac, 18ad, 19bd, 20abcd, 21d, 22a, 
24a, 29ad, 30b, 31c, 36d, 50b, 57d, 63cd, 64ac. Breeding: 19d, 20acd. 

Falco subbuteo subbuteo Hobby* 115 

Palaearctic migrant numerous on spring passage, especially in north, 
Apr - May; only 4 autumn records, Sep - Oct; once over-wintering in 
south. 4c, 14a, 18a, 20a, 40c, 48d, 63ac. 

Falco tinnunculus Kestrel* 123 

F.t. archer i; F.t. rufescens; F.t. tinnunculus . Palaearctic 
tinnunculus is very common widespread winter visitor, Oct - Mar, and 
on passage into May; rufescens is rare in the NW and possibly resident; 
archeri is common resident in the north; all in wide variety of open 
country and bushland. 2c, 4c, 9a, 10c, lie, 13a, 14abc, 15a, 18abd, 
19abd, 20abcd, 31c, 35b, 40c, 48d, 61a, 62a, 63abcd, 66c, 67 c , 68abc, 
69a, 71bd, 72abc, Breeding: 19b, 20a. 

Polihierax semitorquatus Pygmy Falcon* 129 

A fairly common and widespread resident in bushland. 9c, 10c, lie, 
18abd, 19ab, 20abcd, 23cd, 28ab, 33b, 35b, 36d, 37a, 38b, 41b, 43d, 
45c, 48ac, 50c, 53abc, 54acd, 56bd, 57bd, 60c, 61ab, 62b, 63bc, 
66abcd, 67a, 68abc, 71d, 72b, 74b, 75a. Breeding: 20ab. 

Family PHASIANIDAE Quails, Francolins 

Coturnix coturnix coturnix Quail+ 211 

Rare Palaearctic migrant recorded 4 times, Jan, Apr, Sep on western 
borders. 2c, 18a, 44d. 

Coturnix delegorguei delegorguei Harlequin Quail* 212 

Locally abundant Afrotropical breeding visitor May - Dec in south 
below 3°N; rare in NW; in bushland and grassy plains. 18a, 27a, 62bd, 
63c, 66a, 68abc, 71ad, 74bc. Breeding: 63c, 71d. 

Francolinus castaneicollis ogoensis Chestnut-naped Francolin 197 
Rather uncommon resident at above 1200m in NW west of 46°E in mountain 
scrub and Juniper forest. lie, 18a, 19b, 20a. Breeding: lie, 20a. 

Francolinus leucoscepus Yellow-necked Spur fowl* 210 

F.l. infuscatus; F.J. leucoscepus . Common and widespread resident 
in bushland; respective ranges of races unclear, but leucoscepus 
apparently confined to coastal NW. 2c, 4c, 8b, 10a, lied, 13ac, 14ab, 
18ab, 19abd, 20ac, 24a, 28bc, 33b, 48a, 53d, 59d, 63abc, 66a, 68ac, 
70bd, 71ad, 72a, 73d, 74bc, 75abd. Breeding: 18a, 19d, 20c, 63c. 



130. Francolinus levaillantoides lorti Lort Phillips' Francolin 196 
Locally not uncommon resident on grass-covered hillsides in north 
above 9°30'N. 4c, lie, 13a, 14a, 19b, 20a. Breeding 13a. 

131. Francolinus sephaena Crested Francolin* 194/195 
F.s. grantii; F.s. rovuma ; F.s. spilogaster Abundant widespread 
resident in bushland, but absent from NE; respective ranges of races 
unclear, but spilogaster in north and both rovuma and grantii in south. 
8bd, 10c, lie, 18ab, 19abcd, 20abc, 29a, 33b, 40c, 45d, 48acd, 50c, 
52c, 53c, 54a, 55c, 56b, 57bd, 59d, 60ac, 61abc, 62abd, 63bcd, 66cd, 
67cd, 68bc, 69a, 71abcd, 72ab, 73cd, 74abc, 75abcd. Breeding: 52c, 
59d, 60a, 75cd. 

Family NUMIDIDAE Guineafowls 

132. Acrullium vulturinum Vulturine Guineafowl* 219 
Abundant widespread bushland resident, except in NE. 19d, 20c, 28bc, 
29ab, 36d, 37ac, 43a, 46a, 50c, 52c, 53bc, 54ac, 56c, 57bd, 60ac, 62a, 
63ac, 66bd, 67cd, 68bc, 69a, 71abcd, 72ab, 73d, 74abc, 75abd. 
Breeding: 63c, 75bd. 

133. Gutter a pucherani Kenya Crested Guineafowl* 218 
Still fairly common resident in diminishing southern thickets and 
forests south of 2°N. 66acd, 71bd, 75ab. 

134. Numida meleagris somaliensis Helmeted Guineafowl 216 
Fairly common but local resident in NW east to 46° E, in bushland and 
open areas, but apparently now scarcer than formerly; only one recent 
record from the south. 2c, lOcd, lie, 18ab, 19ab, 20ac, 53b. 
Breeding: no square data. 

Family TURNICIDAE Button Quails 

135. Turnix sylvatica lepurana Button Quail* 365 
Uncommon African visitor, May - Sep and Dec, with fewer than 20 records; 
in NW and in south below 3°N, in bushland and damp grassland. 

18a, 19a, 62d, 63bc, 71b, 74b, 75d. 

Family RALLIDAE Rails, Crakes 
Sub-family Rallinae 

136. Crex crex Corncrake+ 223 
Scarce Palaearctic migrant, for which only 4 old records, 2 in NW and 

2 in south; 2 with Oct dates. lie, 18b, 66a, 74b. 

137. Gallinula angulata Lesser Moorhen+ 240 
One old breeding record from the south in May. 59a. Breeding: 59a. 

138. Gallinula chloropus meridionalis Common Moorhen* 239 
Curiously scarce in scattered localities in NW (where has bred) , 

NE and south below 3°N, in seasonal and permanent pools. 7a, 13b, 
63c, 68b, 71d, 75ac. Breeding: 13b. 

139. Limnocorax flavirostra Black Crake* 225 
Locally fairly common resident in freshwater with vegetation in the 



south below 2°N; one wanderer in the NW. lie, 63c, 68bc, 73d, 75a. 
Breeding: 75a. 

140. Porphyrio alleni Allen's Gallinule+ 238 
Scarce African visitor, with one old and 2 recent records in Aug and 
Dec from one area. 68bc. 

141. Porphyrio porphyrio madagascariensis Purple Gallinule+ 237 
One old specimen from the NW coast. lie. 

142. Porzana parva Little Crake+ 229 
Two old records of this Palaearctic migrant in the NW; dated Sep and 
Oct. 18a, 19a. 

143. Porzana porzana Spotted Crake+ 227 
Palaearctic migrant: one old record from the NW in Oct. 20a. 

144. Porzana pusilla intermedia Lesser Spotted Crake+ 228 
One old record of bird of unknown origin in Sep in the NW. 18a. 

145. Sarothrura elegars Buff -spotted Pygmy Crake+ 2 36 
One old record of an African migrant in the NW in May. lie. 

Sub-family Fulicinae 

146. Fulica cristata Red-knobbed Coot*+ 242 
Two recent records of African wanderers in Mar and Dec in the south. 
63c, 68b. 


147. Podica senegalensis somereni African Finfoot+ 243 
One recent (Jan) and one old record from the lower Juba. 71b. 

Family OTIDIDAE Bustards 

148. Eupodotis hartlaubii Hartlaub's Bustard+ 259 
Rare and local presumed resident with 4 old and one recent record on 
grasslands in the NW, west of 45° E and in the SE coastal strip. 

18ad, 19c, 63b, 72a. 

149. Eupodotis humilis Little Brown Bustard 255 
A bushland breeding resident in the north, common south to 7°N, but 
scarcer beyond to 4°N. 6c, 10c, lie, 13ac, 14c, 15ad, 16a, 18bd, 
19abcd, 20abcd, 21c, 22a, 23acd, 24bc, 26b, 27a, 28c, 29ac, 30abcd, 
31a, 34d, 35b, 46a, 49b. Breeding: 13a. 

150. Eupodotis melanogaster Black-bellied Bustard* 258 
Very uncommon, presumed resident, in various grasslands in SE, where 
partly sympatric with E. hartlaubii . 63ac, 64c, 68b, 71b. 

151. Eupodotis ruficrista gindiana Buff-crested Bustard* 257 
Common and widespread resident of bushland. 2c, 6c, 8b, 9c, lOcd, 

lie, 16a, 18a, 19abd, 20bc, 21c, 24b, 28ac, 33b, 34d, 35abc, 36d, 37a, 
38bcd, 40cd, 41abc, 48acd, 50c, 53abc, 54acd, 56bcd, 57d, 58a, 59ad, 



60ac, 61abc, 62ab, 63abcd, 66abd, 67d, 68bc, 69a, 71abcd, 72ab, 
74abc, 75abd. Breeding: lie, 69a. 

152. Eupodotis senegalensis canicollis White-bellied Bustard* 256 
Rather common and widespread resident of bushland. 6c, lie, 13ac, 

16d, 18abd, 19abcd, 20a, 22a, 24c, 28ab, 29ac, 30c, 31a, 33c, 35ab, 
37a, 38d, 43b, 48a, 50b, 51a, 55c, 56c, 57bd, 58a, 60c, 61b, 62d, 
63abcd, 68bc, 69a, 70b, 71bd, 75a. Breeding: 18a, 19a, 69a. 

153. Neotis heuglini Heuglin's Bustard 252 
A fairly common widespread resident and wanderer in grassland and 
desert south to 3°N. 2c, 8b, 10c, 13ac, 14c, 16a, 19bd, 20ac, 21bcd, 
22a, 24a, 27ab, 28ab, 29abd, 30a, 31ac, 33c, 35b, 36d, 43b, 53b, 56c, 
64a. Breeding: 27ab. 

154. Otis arabs arabs Arabian Bustard+ 249 
Apparently not uncommon previously in open country along NW border 

from where there is only one recent record. 2c, 9a. 

155. Otis kori struthiunculus Kori Bustard 250 
Previously fairly common resident in open bush and grassy plains of 

the NW south to 9°N, and east to 46° E, but no recent records? at least 
2 old records in the far south below the equator. 18ad, 19bcd, 20ac, 
74b. Breeding: 19d. 

Family JACANIDAE Jacanas 

156. Actophilornis africanus Jacana* 264 
Locally abundant resident of inland wetlands in south below 4°N, often 
temporarily exploiting seasonal wetlands; one record in NW. 18d, 56c, 
63abc, 66d, 67d, 68abc, 71bd, 72a, 73d, 74b, 75abc. Breeding: 68b, 
71d, 73d, 75ac. 

Family ROSTRATULIDAE Painted Snipe 

157. Rostratula benghalensis benghalensis Painted Snipe* 297 
Irregular uncommon breeding visitor, Apr - Sep and Dec to scattered 
wetlands in the south below 3°N; twice recorded in NW. 19a, 28b, 

59a, 63bc, 68b, 71d. Breeding: 59a, 63c. 

Family HAEMATOPODIDAE Oystercatchers 

158. Haematopus ostralegus Oyster catcher* 294 
H.o. longipesf H.o. ostralegus. Rather uncommon Palaearctic migrant 
over-wintering in coastal areas, Aug - May; a few over-summer; both 
longipes and ostralegus are recorded. 2c, 3c, 6b, 13a, 16d, 17c, 

63cd, 68b, 69a, 74bc. 

Family CHARADRIIDAE Plovers 

159. Charadrius alexandrinus alexandrinus Kentish Plover* 269 
Fairly common resident breeding population in north, where there and 
elsev/here it is also a Palaearctic migrant over-wintering and on passage 
in coastal areas, Oct - May, and once inland. 2c, 3c, 4cd, 5c, 6b, 
lOad, lie, 13a, 16d, 17c, 25d, 63c, 68c, 69a, 74b. Breeding: 2c, lie. 



160. Charadrius asiaticus Caspian Plover* 277 
Abundant Palaearctic migrant, over-wintering and on passage, Aug - Apr 
and once Jun, on inland grasslands and coastal dunes. 18a, 19ab, 34d, 
43cd, 63cd, 64ac, 67d, 68b, 69a, 71d, 72ac, 74ac. 

161. Charadrius dubius curonicus Little Ringed Plover* 267 
Common and widespread Palaearctic migrant on coastal dunes, and 
especially on short grass areas and bare open ground near fresh water, 
over-wintering and presumably on passage Aug - May. lOad, lie, 18b, 
28b, 29a, 35b, 41c, 44d, 45c, 48a, 53a, 60c, 63abcd, 66d, 68abc, 69a, 
71d, 72a, 74b, 75b. 

162. Charadrius hiaticula tundrae Ringed Plover* 266 
Very common and widespread coastal and inland Palaearctic migrant 
over-wintering and on passage in grassy areas and variety of fresh 

and sea-water habitats; some over-summer. 2c, 3c, 4cd, 5c, 6b, 7a, 
10ac, lie, 13a, 17c, 19a, 20c, 35b, 41c, 43cd, 51a, 59a, 60a, 62bd, 
63acd, 64ac, 67d, 68abcd, 69a, 71bd, 72ac, 73d, 74bc, 75abd. 

163. Charadrius leschenaultii Great Sandplover* 275 
Fairly common Palaearctic migrant on both coasts, over-wintering and 

on passage, on dunes, shores and lagoons; a few over-summer, and has 
possibly bred in the north (2c). 2c, 3c, 5c, 6b, 7a, lie, 13a, 16d, 
25d, 35b, 63cd, 64ac, 68bc, 69a, 74bc, 75bd. 

164. Charadrius marginatus tenellus White-fronted Sandplover* 268 
Common resident confined to sandy coastal areas in south, recorded as 
far north as 5°30'N. 43d, 63cd, 64ac, 68abcd, 69a, 74abc, 75bd. 
Breeding: 63c, 69a. 

165. Charadrius mongolus atrifrons Mongolian Sandplover* 274 
Very common Palaearctic migrant on passage and over-wintering in 
coastal habitats; only twice inland; some over-summer. 2ac, 6b, 

lie, 12b, 16d, 43cd, 51a, 63cd, 64a, 66d, 69a, 71d, 74ab, 75bd. 

166. Charadrius pecuarius pecuarius Kittlitz's Sandplover* 271 
Common and widespread breeding resident on coastal dunes and inland, 

on bare ground or in short grass where water is available, south of 
6°N; 3 records on north coast. 5c, 6b, 10a, 41a, 43d, 45c, 49c, 56c, 
61a, 62bd, 63abcd, 64a, 66d, 67d, 68abc, 69a, 71bd, 72ac, 73d, 74bc, 
75b. Breeding: 63d, 68b, 69a. 

167. Charadrius tricollaris tricollaris Three-banded Plover 272 
Fairly common inland resident, along streams in the north above 8 P N, 
where presumably breeds; only 2 records in the south. 8b, lOd, lie, 
l*8a, 19ab, 30c, 60a, 63c. 

168. Pluvialis dominica fulva Lesser Golden Plover* 278 
Palaearctic migrant, very common over-wintering near Mogadishu, but 
only 9 other scattered records in coastal habitats and short grass 
areas; Aug - Apr, and once in July; twice inland. lOcd, lie, 25d, 

63c f 68a, 69a, 71d. 



169. Pluvialis squatarola Grey Plover* 279 
Abundant Palaearctic migrant over-wintering and on passage in coastal 
habitats; many over-summer ; twice inland. 2c, 3c, 4c, 5c, 6b, 7a, 

13a, 16d, 17c, 43cd, 51a, 57d, 63cd, 64ac, 68abcd, 69a, 72a, 73d, 
74abc, 75bd. 

170. Vanellus coronatus Crowned Plover* 281 
V.c coronatus; V.c. demissus . Common and widespread resident on 
plains, dunes and in open bush; demissus occurs south to at least 

1°N, and coronatus is only known along the two rivers south of 4°N. 
9c, lie, 13c, 14c, 18ab, 19ab, 20abcd, 21bd, 22a, 23acd, 24ac, 28ab, 
29a, 30ab, 33c, 35a, 36d, 37ac, 40cd, 41abc, 43c, 45c, 48ac, 50bc, 
51a, 53abc, 56b, 58a, 62b, 63abcd, 64abc, 67d, 68abc, 69a, 71d. 
Breeding: 18ab, 2 Id, 63d, 69a. 

171. Vanellus gregarius Sociable Plover+ 284 
Palaearctic migrant; one old record in the north in Nov. 20a. 

172. Vanellus lugubris Senegal Plover* 282 
Common but very local, apparently non-breeding, African visitor to 
dunes, open bush and plains in Jan and Apr - Jul, in restricted area 

of SE between 44° E and 4°N. 56d, 62bd, 63abcd, 64ac, 68abc, 69a. 

173. Vanellus melanopterus melanopterus Black-winged Plover+ 283 
Rare non-breeding visitor twice to NW border, where one old record 

in Feb and one recently in May. 8b, 18a. 

174. Vanellus senegallus senegallus Wattled Plover+ 291 
One old record in the NW in Aug. 19a. 

175. Vanellus spinosus Spur -winged Plover* 286 
Common widespread resident in the south below 6° N on dunes, lagoons 

and inland wetlands; a few records only in the NW. 10a, 18a, 19a, 
41ac, 45c, 48a, 53bc, 54cd, 60a, 61a, 62ad, 63abc, 66abd, 67acd, 
68abc, 69a, 71abd, 72ac, 73d, 74b, 75abd. Breeding: 62d, 63c, 
68b, 69a. 

176. Vanellus tectus Black-headed Plover* 292 
V.t. latifrons ; V.t. tectus. Very common and widespread resident 

in south below 4° N (latifrons) on dunes, grasslands and open bush; 
rare visitor to NW border (tectus) . 2c, 9a, 48a, 52b, 54d, 56bcd, 
58a, 59d, 60c, 61ab, 62abd, 63abcd, 66d, 67d, 68abc, 69a, 70b, 
71abd, 72ab, 73d, 74ab, 75abd. Breeding: 62d, 63ac, 71d, 73d. 

Family SCOLOPACIDAE Sandpipers, Snipes 
Sub-family Tringinae 

177. Actitis hypoleucos Common Sandpiper* 312 
Common and widespread Palaearctic migrant, over-wintering and on 
passage in coastal habitats and inland wetlands; some over-summer. 

2c, 3c, 4c, 5c, 6b, 7a, lie, 13a, 15a, 16c, 17c, 18ab, 19ab, 20a, 
25c, 30b, 41c, 43c, 44d, 45c, 51a, 60ac , 62b, 63cd, 66bd, 67acd f 
68ab, 69a, 71bd, 72a, 73d, 74bc, 75bd. 



178. Numenius arquata orientalis Curlew* 321 
Fairly common Palaearctic migrant over-wintering and on passage on 
both coasts, but none recorded 3° - 10°N; a few over-summer; racial 
distribution uncertain, but orientalis and orientalis/arquata inter- 
grades are known. 2ac, 4c, 5c, 6b, 10c, lie, 16d, 17c, 63cd, 68c, 

69a, 74abc, 75b. 

179. Numenius phaeopus phaeopus Whimbrel* 322 
Common Palaearctic migrant over-wintering and on passage (abundant in 
spring in south) on both coasts, but none recorded 3° - 10°N; some 
over-summer. 2ac, 3c, 5c, 6b, 10c, lie, 13a, 16d, 17c, 63cd, 64ac, 
68bc, 69a, 74bc, 75bd. 

180. Tringa erythropus Spotted Redshank*+ 316 
Rare Palaearctic migrant in SE recorded recently only 7 times in 

Dec - Mar at inland wetlands in the SE below 3°N. 63c, 68b. 

181. Tringa glareola Wood Sandpiper* 314 
Common, locally very numerous widespread Palaearctic migrant, over- 
wintering and on passage at inland wetlands Aug - May; scarce at 
coast; once in summer. 9c, 10a, lie, 16c, 19ab, 20ad, 28ab, 30b, 

35b, 40cd, 41c, 53a, 60a, 62d, 63abc, 66d, 67c, 68ab, 69a, 71bcd, 
72ac, 73d, 75b. 

182. Tringa nebular ia Greenshank* 318 
Common Palaearctic migrant over-wintering and on passage on coast 

and inland wetlands; many over-summer. 2c, 3c, 4d, 5c, 6b, 7a, lOac, 
lie, 16c, 19a, 28b, 30c, 35b, 40c, 41c, 43c, 45c, 51a, 56c, 60ac, 61a, 
63bcd, 67acd, 68abc, 69a, 71bcd, 72a, 73d, 74abc, 75bd. 

183. Tringa ochropus Green Sandpiper* 313 
Rather uncommon Palaearctic migrant over-wintering and on passage, 

Aug - May, in NW and south of 6°N, on inland wetlands; twice in Jul. 
lie, 18a, 19ab, 28b, 41c, 60ac, 61a, 62d, 63bc, 66d, 67c, 68ab, 69a, 
71bd, 72a, 73d, 75a. 

184. Tringa stagnatilis Marsh Sandpiper* 317 
Nowadays fairly common Palaearctic migrant, but only 4 old records, 
over-wintering and presumably on passage on inland wetlands south 

of 3° N (except for once in NW) ; some over-summer. 10a, 62bd, 63c, 
66d, 68ab, 69a, 71bd, 72ac, 73d, 74b. 

185. Tringa totanus Redshank* 315 
T.t. eurhinust T.t. totanus. Common Palaearctic migrant over- 
wintering on south (below 3°N) and north coasts; a few over-summer; 

4 inland records. Racial determination requires further study. 
2c, 3c, 4d, 5c, 6b, 7a, lOac, lie, 13a, 41c, 62b, 63cd, 68b, 69a, 
71d, 74b. 

186. Xenus cinereus Terek Sandpiper* 311 
Common Palaearctic migrant over-wintering and on passage (especially 
spring) on south (below 3°N) and north coasts; once inland; some 
over-summer. 2ac, 4d, 5c, 6b, 10a, lie, 45c, 63cd, 69a, 73d, 74abc, 



Sub-family Scolopacinae 

187. Gallinago gallinago gallinago Common Snipe* 298 
Locally common over-wintering Palaearctic migrant in Oct - Feb in 
north and south of 3°N; once in summer. 10a, lie, 18a, 25c, 60a, 

62d, 63c, 66d, 68ab, 71d, 72a, 73d. 

188. Gallinago stenura Pintail Snipe+ 301 
Palaearctic migrant; one old record on the Juba in Mar. 60c. 

189. Lymnocryptes minimus Jack Snipe*+ 302' 
Palaearctic migrant; one recent record near Mogadishu in Dec. 69a. 

Sub-family Calidridinae 

190. Calidris alba Sanderling* 308 
Abundant Palaearctic migrant, over-wintering and on passage on coasts; 
some over-summer. 2ac, 3c, 4cd, 6b, 7a, lOacd, lie, 13a, 16d, 17c, 
25d, 35b, 43cd, 51a, 63cd, 64a, 68abcd, 69a, 74abc, 75bd. 

191. Calidris alpina alpina Dunlin*+ 304 
Rare Palaearctic migrant recorded 7 times over-wintering and on 
passage, twice in north and 4 times in south, on coast Nov - Apr; 

once inland. lie, 66d, 69a. 

192. Calidris canutus canutus Knot*+ 307 
Scarce Palaearctic migrant recorded recently 2-3 times on southern 
coast near Mogadishu, Jun - Aug. 69a. 

193. Calidris ferruginea Curlew Sandpiper* 303 
Abundant and widespread Palaearctic migrant over-wintering and on 
passage in coastal habitats and inland wetlands; many over-summer. 

2c, 5c, 6b, lie, 16d, 17c, 19a, 28b, 35b, 41a, 62b, 63acd, 64c, 
67d, 68abc, 69a, 71bd, 72ac, 73d, 74abc, 75bd. 

194. Calidris minuta Little Stint* 305 
Abundant and widespread Palaearctic migrant over-wintering and on 
passage in coastal habitats and inland wetlands; some over-summer. 

2c, 4cd, 5c, 7a, 9c, lOac, lie, 13c, 16d, 17c, 18a, 19a, 22a, 28ab, 
29a, 30c, 35b, 40c, 41ac, 53a, 56d, 60a, 62bd, 63acd, 64c, 66d, 
68ab, 69a, 71bd, 72ac, 73d, 74bc, 75abd. 

195. Calidris ruficollis Red-necked Stint*+ 

Rare Palaearctic migrant with 4 scattered recent records in Apr and 
May, 3 on coast and one inland. 5c, 6b, 68b, 69a. 

196. Calidris temminckii Temminck's Stint 306 
Rather uncommon Palaearctic migrant over-wintering Oct - May on 

inland wetlands, especially in south below 3°N; once on coast; 
only 3 records from NW. 10c, 19a, 28b, 63c, 66d, 68ab, 72a. 

197. Limicola falcinellus falcinellus Broad-billed Sandpiper*+ 307B 
Palaearctic migrant; two recent coastal records in Sep - Oct in SE. 
69a, 74b. 


Limosa lapponica lapponica Bar- tailed Godwit* 320 

Over-wintering Palaearctic migrant on coast; rather uncommon in SE 
below 3°N, but common in north; a few over-summer. 2c, 4c, 5c, 6b, 
lie, 16d, 17c, 63cd, 69a, 74ab. 

Limosa limosa limosa Black-tailed Godwit*+ 319 

Rare Palaearctic migrant recorded recently 6 times on southern inland 
wetlands below 3°N, Dec - Feb, and once - the largest number - in Jul. 
62d, 63c, 68b, 71d, 72c. 

Philomachus pugnax Ruff* 309 

Sometimes abundant Palaearctic migrant over-wintering and on passage 
on inland wetlands in the NW and especially in the south below 3°N; 
a few over-summer. 9c, 18ab, 19a, 28b, 41c, 62bd, 63abcd, 66d, 67cd, 
68ab, 69a, 71d, 72ac, 73d, 74b. 

Sub-family Arenariinae 

Arenaria interpres interpres Turnstone* 310 

Common Palaearctic migrant over-wintering and on passage both coasts; 
some over-summer; 3 inland records, Sep - Oct. 2ac, 4c, 5c, 6b, 7a, 
10a, 17c, 43cd, 51a, 63cd, 67d, 68bc, 69a, 71d, 74abc, 75bd. 

Family RECURVIROSTRIDAE Stilts, Avocets 

Himantopus himantopus himantopus Black-winged Stilt* 296 

Locally common visitor (largest numbers Jul) of unknown origin in all 
months, especially to inland wetlands; seldom near coast; bred once 
in NW. 10a, 18a, 19a, 28b, 41c, 62bd, 63abc, 66d, 67d, 68abc, 69a, 
71bd, 72ac, 73d, 74b. Breeding: 10a. 

Recurvirostra avosetta avosetta Avocet*+ 295 

Irregular rare non-breeding visitor of unknown origin on 9 occasions 
to two areas in NW and SE in Nov - May. 2c, 10a, lie, 63d, 68b, 69a. 

Family PHALAROPIDAE Phalaropes 

Phalaropus lobatus Red-necked Phalarope* 323 

Palaearctic migrant with 8 scattered records. Mar, May, Sep - Dec 
(2 inland) , and large concentrations offshore in Mar - Apr and to 
lesser extent Oct - Nov in south (presumed this species) and Sep - 
Nov in NE (definitely this species). 6b, 7a, 10a, 63c, 68b, 69a. 

Family DROMADIDAE Crab Plover 

Dromas ardeola Crab Plover* 335 

I»ocally abundant non-breeding visitor all months and passage migrant 
in coastal areas; breeds on islands in NW. 2ac, 6b, 7c, lie, 13a, 
16d, 17c, 63cd, 64ac, 68bc, 69a, 74abc, 75bd. Breeding: 2c. 

Family BURHINIDAE Thick nee s 

Burhinus capensis Spotted Thicknee* 262 

B.c. dodsoni; B.C. maculosus . Fairly common and widespread breeding 
resident in bushland; dodsoni confined to NW coastal areas, maculosus 
elsewhere. 2c, 4c, lOcd, lie, 13a, 14a, 16c, 18a, 19ab, 20ab, 24a, 



28c, 34d, 35b, 37a, 38cd, 42b, 43ac, 48ad, 51a, 54d, 56d, 59ad, 60c, 
61a, 63bc, 64ac, 66c, 68bc, 69a, 7 lab, 72a, 73d, 74c, 75ad. 
Breeding: lie, 13a, 20a, 42b, 43c. 

207. Burhinus oedicnemus saharae Stone Curlew*+ 26C 
Scarce Palaearctic migrant with one old record in the NW in Feb and 
a recent Dec record in SE. 20a, 63c. 

208. Burhinus verwiculatus vermiculatus Water Thicknee* 26^ 
Rather uncommon presumed resident along the southern rivers and 
wetlands south of 5°N. 45c, 63bc, 66ac, 68ab, 71bd, 72a, 73d, 75b. 

Family GLAREOLIDAE Coursers, Pratincoles 
Sub-family Cursoriinae 

209. Cursorius cursor Cream-coloured Courser* 32 
C.c cursor; C.c. littoralis; C.c. somalensis. Rare Palaearctic 
migrant, and very common and widespread resident in variety of open 
areas and light bush; migrant cursor recorded 4 times in NW and once 

in SE in Oct, Dec, May; two resident races - somalensis in north 
above ca. 5° N and in western areas; littoralis to south and east. 
2c, 4c, 8b, 9a, 10c, lie, 13ac, 14c, 16c, 17c, 18ab, 19abcd, 20abcd, 
21bcd, 23ac, 24c, 25a, 28b, 29a, 30abcd, 31a, 33cd, 35b, 36d, 37ac, 
38b, 39a, 40d, 41abc, 43bcd, 45c, 48acd, 50b, 51a, 52b, 53abc, 54d, 
57d, 58a, 63acd, 64abc, 68bc, 69a, 74bc. 
Breeding: 21d, 63cd, 69a. 

210. Rhinoptilus africanus hartingi Two-banded Courser 32 
Widely distributed common resident on grassland and open bush south 

to 3°N. 2c, 8b, 9a, 10a, lie, 15ab, 16d, 18bd, 19abcd, 20acd, 21bd, 
23acd, 24bc, 25b, 27a, 28a, 30abcd, 31c, 36d, 38c, 43a, 45c, 49b, 56d. 
Breeding: 10a, 19d, 20cd, 45c. 

211. Rhinoptilus cinctus cinctus Heuglin's Courser* 32 
Widespread and often abundant resident in NW east to 46° E and south 

of 6°N in light bushland, even within Mogadishu. 8b, lOcd, lie, 
18b, 19ac, 20abc, 40c, 41c, 44d, 48d, 53b, 54d, 59d, 61a, 62a, 
63abc, 66ac, 68c, 71ad, 73d, 74bc, 75b. Breeding: 19a, 20bc. 

Sub-family Glareolinae 

212. Glareola nordmanni Black-winged Pratincole+ 33 
Scarce Palaearctic migrant with 2 old records in NW in Sep. 18a, 19a 

213. Glareola ocularis Madagascar Pratincole* 33 
Locally abundant non-breeding African visitor to inland wetlands, 
grasslands and bushland in May - Sep in lower Shebelle and lower 
Juba areas. 62d, 63abc, 68ab, 71d, 74b. 

214. Glareola 'pratincola Common Pratincole* 
G.p. fuelleborni ; G.p. limbata. Locally common visitor most months 
to inland wetlands, open areas, bushland and coastal plains; limbata 
twice in Sep in NW, fuelleborni in south below 3°N, where breeds. 
18a, 19a, 63acd, 64c, 66d, 67c, 68b, 69a, 71d, 72ac, 74bc. 
Breeding: 63d, 64c, 74b. 



!. Catharacta maccormicki South Polar Skua*+ 

A single recent record in the SE in Jun. Two other east coast 
records of southern skuas in Apr - May are unidentified (16d, 69a) . 

'16. Catharacta skua loennbergi Brown Skua*+ 336 

We follow Devillers' (1977) nomenclature. 
A single recent record in the SE in Jun. 63d. 

17. Stercorarius parasiticus Arctic Skua* 337 
Uncommon Palaearctic passage migrant off east coast in recent years 

in Apr - May and Aug - Nov; pale phase adults predominate. 
5c, 7a, 17c, 63d, 69a. 

18. Stercorarius pomarinus Pomarine Skua*+ 338 
Rare Palaearctic passage migrant with 5 recent records on east coast, 

2 in Apr, 3 in Nov - Dec. 17c, 69a. 

Family LARIDAE Gulls, Terns 
Sub-family Larinae 

19. Larus argentatus heuglini Herring Gull* 339 
Fairly common Palaearctic migrant over-wintering on north and SE coasts, 
Nov - Mar. 4c, lOcd, 13a, 63cd, 68b, 69a, 74b. 

20. Larus cirrocephalus Grey-headed Gul v l+ 342 
One Jan record on north coast of an African wanderer. lie. 

21. Larus fuscus fuscus Lesser Black-backed Gull* 340 
Very common Palaearctic migrant over-wintering widely on coasts; some 
over-summer. Apparently a recent increase. 2c, 4c, 5bcd, 6ab, 7ac, 
lie. 16d, 17c, 32d, 35b, 43d, 63cd, 64a, 68bc, 69a, 74b, 75b. 

22. Larus hemprichii Sooty Gull* 348 
Abundant coastal resident, apparently augmented by non-breeding 
visitors; very few breeding records. 2ac, 3c, 4cd, 5bcd, 6ab, 7ac, 

9b, 10a, lie, 13a, 16d, 17ac, 35b, 43cd, 51a, 63cd, 64ac, 68bc, 69a, 
74abc, 75bd. Breeding: 2ac, 68c. 

23. Larus ichthyaetus Great Black-headed Gull*+ 343 
Scarce Palaearctic migrant with 2 recent records, inland in south in 
Feb and on SE coast in Jan. 66d, 69a. 

24. Larus leucophthalmus White-eyed Gull 347 
Very common resident on NW coast decreasing eastwards to 10° N. 

2ac, 3c, 4cd, 5bcd, 6ab, 7a, 9b, 10a, lie, 13a, 17c. Breeding: 2ac. 

25. Larus ridibundus Black-headed Gull* 345 
Frequent Palaearctic migrant over-wintering Nov - Feb on SE coast 

and 5 times inland south of 6°N; only one old record (in NW) ; once 
in summer. lie, 41c, 63cd, 66d, 69a. 

26. Larus sabini Sabine's Gull*+ 

Vagrant Palaearctic migrant; one recent SE coast record in May. 69a. 



Sub- family Sterninae 

227. Anous stolidus plumbeigularis Common Noddy* 363 
Abundant breeder on Mait Is. in north, and probably in south, common 

on all coasts Apr - Sep, twice Nov. 2ac, 3c, 4cd, 6b, 10c, 13a, 17c, 
35b, 63cd, 64a, 68b, 69a, 74b, 75d. Breeding: 3c. 

228. Anous tenuirostris tenuirostris Lesser Noddy* 

Recently found to be a regular common non-breeding visitor to east 
coast Apr - Dec, especially near Mogadishu. 17c, 63cd, 64ac, 69a, 74b. 

229. Chlidonias hybridus Whiskered Tern+ 362 
Scarce non-breeding visitor of unknown origin recorded 4 times 
recently on southern inland wetlands below 3°N, Jan, Mar, Jul. Race 
unknown. 62d, 68ab. 

230. Chlidonias leucopterus White-winged Black Tern* 361 
Common Palaearctic migrant over-wintering on southern inland wetlands 
below 3°N; less common in NW; fairly common in summer; rare on coast. 
2c, 10a, 18a, 19a, 62d, 63abc, 66d, 68ab, 71d, 72a, 73d. 

231. Chlidonias niger niger Black Tern*+ 360 
Vagrant Palaearctic migrant with one recent SE coast record in Aug. 


2 32. Gelochelidon nilotica nilotica Gull-billed Tern* 349 

Fairly common Palaearctic migrant over-wintering and on passage on 
coasts, and especially inland southern wetlands below 3°N; some over- 
summer. 2c, 6b, 7a, 17c, 63a, 68ab, 69a, 74ab. 

2 33. Sterna albifrons Little Tern* 357 

S.a. albifrons; S.a. saundersi . Very common visitor {saundersi) , 
especially when breeding on SE coast in Apr - Sep; many non-breeding 
visitors on all coasts throughout year certainly include albifrons . 
2c, 5c, 6b, 7a, lOac, lie, 16d, 17c, 35b, 43cd, 51ac, 57d, 58c, 63cd, 
64abc, 68bc, 69a, 74b, 75bd. Breeding: 63cd, 64ac, 68c, 69a. 

234. StQrna anaethetus anaethetus Bridled Tern* 359 

Locally abundant breeding visitor to northern islands, and probably 
in south; uncommon on coast elsewhere Apr - Nov and once Jan. 2ac, 3c, 
6b, 10a, 13a, 17c, 63cd, 69a, 75d. Breeding: 2ac. 

2 35. Sterna bengalensis par Lesser Crested Tern* 355 

Abundant most of year on both coasts; breeds on northern isles. 2ac, 
3c, 5bcd, 6ab, 7ac, 9b, 10a, 13a, 16d, 17c, 35b, 43c, 51a, 57d, 63cd, 
64abc, 68bc, 69a, 74abc, 75d. Breeding: 2ac. 

2 36. Sterna bergii Crested Tern* 356 

S.b. thalassina; S.b. velox. Fairly common on both coasts; breeds 
on northern isles {velox) ; thalassina has occured 3 times in Jun in 
south; absent Sep - Nov in south. 2ac, 3c, 4cd, 5bcd, 6ab, 7a, 9b, 
10a, lie, 13a, 16d, 17c, 25d, 35b, 43c, 51a, 63cd, 64c, 68b, 69a, 
74ab. Breeding: 2ac. 


237. Sterna caspia Caspian Tern* 350 
Only 4 old records but now regular but rather uncommon visitor of 
unknown origin to N and SE coasts in all months, especially Mar and 
Sep. 2ac, 5bcd, 6ab, 7a, lOac, lie, 63c, 69a, 74bc, 75bd. 

238. Sterna dougallii dougallii Roseate Tern* 352 
Abundant breeding visitor to SE coast south of 3°N Apr - Oct; only 

once further north. 35b, 63cd, 64c, 68bc, 69a, 75bd. 
Breeding: 68c, 69a. 

239. Sterna fuscata fuscata Sooty Tern* 358 
Abundant breeding visitor to Mait Is. in north and in small numbers 

on southern isles; otherwise often abundant Mar - Nov both coasts, 
and twice inland. 3c, 6b, 7a, 17c, 23a, 30b, 43d, 63cd, 64ac, 69a. 
Breeding: 3c, 69a. 

240. Sterna hirundo hirundo Common Tern* 351 
Abundant Palaearctic migrant on spring and autumn passage and over- 
summering on SE coast Mar - Nov; fewer records elsewhere, but twice 
inland. S.h. tibetana probably occurs. 5bcd, 6ab, 7a, 17c, 19a, 25d, 
35b, 63cd, 68bc, 69a. 

241. Sterna paradisaea Arctic Tern*+ 

Palaearctic migrant with 10 recent records Apr - Oct, including 
inland adult in North in May, and rest on spring and autumn passage 
and over-summering on SE coast. 28b, 63d, 69a. 

242. Sterna repressa White-cheeked Tern* 353 
Often abundant non-breeding visitor all coasts; breeding on northern 
and southern isles. 2ac, 4d, 5c, 6b, 7a, 16d, 17c, 35b, 43cd, 51a, 
63cd, 64ac, 68b, 69a, 74bc, 75bd. Breeding: 2ac, 75b. 

243. Sterna sandvicensis sandvicensis Sandwich Tern* 354 
Rather rare Palaearctic migrant with one dubious old and 12 recent 
records, Jan, Mar - May on both coasts. 6b, 7a, 10a, 17c, 35b, 

63c, 69a. 

Family RYNCHOPIDAE Skimmers 

244. Rynchops flavirostris African Skimmer*+ 364 
Scarce African wanderer recently recorded once in Jun - Aug on SE 
coast. 69a. 

Family PTEROCLIDIDAE Sandgrouse 

245. Pterocles decoratus ellenbecki Black-faced Sandgrouse* 370 
Common widespread breeding resident; in coastal dunes and in bushland 
south of 6°N. 40c, 41c, 45c, 48ad, 53ab, 54cd, 56d, 57bd, 59d, 60acd, 
61ab, 62bd, 63abcd, 64ac, 66cd, 67cd, 68ac, 69a, 71abcd, 72ab, 73d, 
74bc, 75ad. Breeding: 71c. 

246. Pterocles exustus ellioti Chestnut-bellied Sandgrouse 369 
Abundant widespread breeding resident in dry open areas and bushland; 
absent from NE and south of 3°N. 2cd, 4cd, 8b, 9a, lOacd, lied, 14c, 
18ab, 19bd, 20abcd, 21d, 22a, 23a, 28ab, 29a, 30bc, 33cd, 34d, 35b, 



36d, 37ac, 40cd, 41abc, 43c, 48a, 50b, 51a, 53bc, 54d, 56d. 
Breeding: 2c, 19d, 20cd. 

247. Pterocles lichtensteinii lichtensteinii Lichtenstein's Sandgrouse 373 
Locally fairly common resident in open bush land and rocky areas south 

to 3°N. 4c, 6ac, lie, 13a, 16c, 18ab, 19ab, 20ab, 31a, 35b, 40c, 45c, 
48c, 52c, 53c. Breeding: lie. 

248. Pterocles senegallus Spotted Sandgrouse 368 
Locally fairly common non-breeding visitor, especially recently, 

Mar - May in open country north of 7°N. 3c, 4c, lOad, 14c, 21d, 22a, 
24b, 30bc, 31a, 35b. 

Family COLUMBIDAE Pigeons, Doves 
Sub-family Columbinae 

249. Columba arquatrix arquatrix Olive Pigeon 380 
Locally very common presumed resident in mountain woodlands in NW 

west of 48°E. lie, 13a, 18a, 19b. 

250. Columba guinea guinea Speckled Pigeon* 379 
Previously confined to NW border, has recently spread dramatically 

to east and south as a widespread presumed resident in towns, reaching 
Mogadishu in 1980. lie, 18ab, 19ab, 20abd, 22a, 23c, 24a, 28b, 29ac, 
30c, 33bd, 34d, 35b, 36d, 37a, 40c, 41abc, 48ac, 54c, 55c, 56b, 62a, 
63c, 69a. < 

251. Columba livia Feral Pigeon* 376 
Locally common widespread breeding resident associated with human 
habitation, but under- recorded. 5c, 6b, 37a, 63bc, 66a, 68b, 71d. 
Breeding: 63c. 

252. Columba olivae Somali Rock Pigeon 378 
Uncommon local endemic resident in arid rocky maritime hills east of 

45° E in the north, and south down the east coast to ca. 8°N. 
4c, lie, 17c, 35b. Breeding: 35b. 

253. Oena capensis capensis Namaqua Dove* 393 
Very common widespread resident in bushland and cultivated areas, 
undergoing movements which are not understood. 2c, 4cd, 5c, 6b, 

7a, 8bd, 9ac, lOacd, lie, 13a, 14c, 15ab, 16c, 18ab, 19ab, 20abd, 
21bcd, 22a, 23acd, 24ab, 27a, 28ab, 29d, 30bc, 31a, 33bcd, 34ad, 
35b, 36d, 37ac, 38b, 40cd, 41abc, 45c, 48acd, 49b, 50ab, 52b, 53bc, 
54acd, 56bcd, 57bd, 58a, 60ac, 61abc, 62abd, 63abcd, 66abd, 67ad, 
68abc, 69a, 71bd, 72abc, 73d, 74abc, 75abd. Breeding: 6b. 

254. Streptopelia capicola somalica Ring-necked Dove* 388 
Abundant widespread breeding resident in bushland and cultivated 
areas. 2c, 6c, 8d, 9ac, lOcd, lie, 13ac, 14ac,.15ab, 16a, 18ab, 

19ab, 20abd, 21cd, 23ad, 24abc, 27a, 28ab, 29ad, 30bc, 31ac, 33bcd, 
34ad, 35abc, 36d, 37ac, 38d, 40cd, 41abc, 43c, 48acd, 50ac, 51a, 
52c, 53abc, 54acd, 56bcd, 57bd, 58a, 59a, 60acd, 61abc, 62abd, 
63abcd, 66abcd, 67cd, 68abc, 69a, 71abd, 72ab, 73bcd, 74abc, 75abd. 
Breeding: 19a, 52c, 59a, 63c, 69a. 



255. Streptopelia decipiens Mourning Dove* 387 
S.d. decipiens; S.d. elegans. Very common breeding resident; in 

NW west of 45°E (decipiens) , and widespread below 6°N (elegans) 
in southern dry bushlands and in other trees near water. 8bd, 18b, 
19a, 40c, 48a, 53bc, 54d, 60c, 62bd, 63abc, 67cd, 68abc, 71ad, 72a, 
74b. Breeding: 63c, 68a. 

256. Streptopelia lugens lugens Dusky Turtle Dove+ 385 
Scarce presumed breeding resident recorded 3 times very locally in 

high altitude woodlands in NW between 44° - 46° E. 19a, 20a. 

257. Streptopelia reichenowi White-winged Dove* 389 
Locally fairly common resident in woodland and scrub along parts of 

the two southern rivers, not necessarily associated with palms, and 
probably decreasing. 45c, 48ac, 53b, 56b, 60ac, 63c, 66ac, 74b. 
Breeding: 53b. 

258. Streptopelia roseogrisea arabica Pink-headed Dove 391 
Abundant breeding resident along N coast and in NW above 9°N, in arid 
open bushland, Tamarix thickets and scattered trees. 2c, 3c, 4cd, 

5c, 6b, 9ab, lOacd, lie, 13a, 15a, 19a, 20b. Breeding: No square 
data available. 

259. Streptopelia semitorquata Red-eyed Dove 386 
Locally common resident of woodlands in wetter areas north of 9°N and 
south of 3°N. 4c, 9c, 10c, lie, 13a, 14b, 19ab, 20ab, 59d, 66cd, 71bd, 
74b, 75abcd. Breeding: 75b. 

260. Streptopelia senegalensis senegalensis Laughing Dove* 392 
Very common resident throughout in wide range of habitats. 2c, 4c, 

5c, 6abc, 7a, 8bd, 9ac, lOcd, lie, 13ac, 14a, 15a, 16c, 18ab, 19ab, 
20abd, 21d, 23c, 24a, 28ab, 30b, 33d, 35b, 40c, 41c, 45c, 48acd, 
49c, 53bc, 54acd, 55c, 56b, 60cd, 61abc, 62abd, 63abcd, 66ac, 67acd, 
68abc, 69a, 71abd, 72ab, 74abc, 75bd. Breeding: 48a, 63c. 

261. Streptopelia turtur (arenicola) Turtle Dove*+ 384 
Very rare Palaearctic migrant with 4 records in May, Aug, Oct, Nov. 

2c, 19ab, 69a. 

262. Turtur chalcospilos Emerald-spotted Wood Dove* 397 
Very common widespread breeding resident in bushland and variety of 
woodland in NW west to 49° E and south of 5°N. 4c, 8bd, lie, 14ab, 

18b, 19ab, 20a, 43d, 44d, 54d, 55c, 56bc, 57d, 59a, 60ac, 61ac, 62abd, 
63abcd, 66abcd, 67cd, 68abc, 69a, 71abd, 72abc, 73bd, 74abc, 75abd. 
Breeding: 62d, 66c. 

263. Turtur tympanistria Tambourine Dove 394 
Common, but very local, presumed resident in woodlands below 1°30'N, 
particularly along the lower Juba. 66d, 71bd, 75b. 

Sub- family Treroninae 

264. Treron waalia Bruce ' s Green Pigeon 400 
Common widespread resident in the north above 8°N in association with 
Ficus; once on upper Juba. 2c, 4c, 6c, 8d, lie, 13a, 14ab, 15a, 16c, 



18b, 19b, 20a, 28ab, 30bc, 44d. Breeding: 8d, lie. 

Family PSITTACIDAE Parrots 

265. Poicephalus rufiventris pallidus Orange-bellied Parrot 448 
Fairly common widespread resident in bushland and open woodland 

except in coastal lowlands 8b, 10c, lie, 13ac, 14c, 18b, 19ab, 
20abc, 23a, 24bc, 33b, 37a, 40c, 41c, 45c, 48a, 49cd, 53abc, 54ac, 
56d, 60acd, 61a, 62a, 66ac, 71abcd, 73d, 74abc, 75ab. Breeding: lie. 

266. Psittacula krameri parvirostris Rose-ringed Parrakeet+ 450 
Vagrant, one old record in the north at Berbera was possibly a 
wanderer from the small colony in Djibouti. lie. 

Family MUSOPHAGIDAE Turacos 

267. Corythaixoides leucogaster White-bellied Go-away Bird* 440 
Common and widespread resident in bushland west of 49° E. 8bd, 9ac, 
10c, lie, 13c, 18b, 19ab, 20abc, 21c, 23d, 33bcd, 37a, 40cd, 41c, 

45c, 48acd, 53abc, 54acd, 55c, 56bc, 58a, 60acd, 61ac, 62ab, 63abcd, 
66abcd, 67ac, 68c, 70b, 71abd, 72ab, 73d, 74ac, 75abd. Breeding: 8d, 
lie, 18b, 19a, 20abc. 

268. Tauraco fischeri fischeri Fischer's Turaco+ 431 
Very local and uncommon presumed resident in lower Juba woodlands. 

66c, 71b. 

Family CUCULIDAE Cuckoos, Coucals 
Sub-family Cuculinae 

269. Chrysococcyx caprius Didric Cuckoo* 417 
Common and fairly widespread throughout year south of 6°N, associated 
with Ploceus colonies, but in NW apparently only on passage May, Jun, 
Sep (once Jul) west of 47°E. 2c, lie, 18a, 20abc, 28b, 40c, 41bc, 48a, 
56b, 61b, 62bd, 63abc, 67d, 68abc, 69a, 71d, 73d, 74a, 75b. 

Breeding: 63c. 

270. Chrysococcyx klaas Klaas ' Cuckoo* 418 
Uncommon, presumed African migrant with scattered records in woodlands 
and bushland, Feb - Nov, south of 3°N, once in NW; has bred. 18a, 60c, 
63ac, 66a, 67d, 68b, 71bd, 74a. Breeding: 66a. 

271. Clamator glandarius Great Spotted Cuckoo* 413 
Uncommon African and possibly Palaearctic migrant in NW, Jan - Aug, 
where also breeds; only 3 times in SE Feb, Dec. 2c, 4c, 10c, lie, 

14a, 19a, 20abcd, 21c, 28a, 62b, 63c. Breeding 20abcd. 

272. Clamator jacobinus Black and White Cuckoo* 415 
C.j. pica; C.j. serratus. Locally common and widespread most months 

in NW west of 47°E and south of 7°N in bushland and thickets; poorly 
understood migrations of pica, S. African serratus, and possibly 
Asiatic jacobinus are involved; has bred (pica). lie, 20abc, 28b, 
37c, 43d, 48ad, 55c, 56cd,-59d, 62ab, 63abc, 66c, 68bc, 69a, 70b, 
71bd, 74b. Breeding: 59d. 


273. Clamator levaillantii Levaillant's Cuckoo+ 414 
Scarce African migrant with 4 old records Mar and Jun, 3 in the north 
and one in the south. 4c, lie, 14a, 66c. 

274. Cuculus canorus Eurasian Cuckoo* 404 
C.c. canorus; C.c. telephonus . Fairly common Palaearctic passage 
migrant, Apr - May and Aug - Nov, mostly above 8°N; only 6 times 
further south; specimens about equally divided between the 2 races. 

2c, 5c, lie, 14c, 16c, 18b, 19ab, 20a, 23ac, 30c, 41b, 63cd, 69a. 

275. Cuculus gularis African Cuckoo+ 404 
Rare African non-breeding migrant with 6 old and 1 recent record 

above 4°N in May, Jul, Sep. lie, 18b, 19b, 20ac, 37c, 43d. 

276. Cuculus poliocephalus poliocephalus Lesser Cuckoo+ 405 
Rare Palaearctic non-breeding visitor with at least 2 old records in 
the north in Nov. lie, 20a. 

277. Cuculus solitarius solitarius Red-chested Cuckoo+ 406 
African migrant with one old southern record in May. 59d. 

Sub-family Phoenicophaeinae 

278. Ceuthmochares aereus australis Yellowbill* 424 
Uncommon possible resident and African migrant in dense southern 
woodland south of 3°N in Feb, Jun, Sep, Oct. 60c, 63c, 66c, 71bd, 75ab. 

Sub- family Centropinae 

279. Centropus senegalensis senegalensis Senegal Coucal+ 422 
Little known presumed resident with only 2 old records from an area 

in NW. 19b, 20a. 

280. Centropus superciliosus superciliosus White-browed Coucal* 423 
Common widespread breeding resident in wide range of arid bushland 

and wetland thickets; unrecorded in NE. 8b, lie, 13a, 18a, 19a, 20a, 
28abc, 30c, 33b, 35b, 37a, 48ad, 53b, 55c, 56bc, 60c, 62abd, 63abcd, 
64a, 66acd, 67cd, 68abc, 69a, 71bd, 72ab, 73d, 74b, 75abd. 
Breeding: 68b. 

Family TYTONIDAE Barn Owl 

281. Tyto alba affinus Barn Owl*+ 528 

Rare presumed resident with only 2 old and 6 recent records, one in 
NW, the remainded in SE below 3°N, in woodland, among rocks and sea- 
caves. 18a, 63bc, 68b, 69a. 

Family STRIGIDAE Owls 

282. Athene noctua somaliensis Little Owl 537 
Common breeding resident in north, less so further south to 3*N, in 
variety of habitat with trees, rocks, banks or termitaria. 2c, 6c, 

9c, 10c, lie, 13a, 14c, 18b, 19ab, 20abcd, 23a, 24ac, 27a, 28ab, 
29d, 37a, 41c, 49c. Breeding: 20ab. 



283. Bubo africanus cinerascens Spotted Eagle Owl* 543 
Common widespread resident except in NE in wide range of arid rocky 
bushland, wooded and urban habitats. 2c, lie, 18a, 19b, 20abc, 28cd, 
29d, 33c, 34d, 48d, 51a, 59d, 62d, 63cd, 69a, 73d, 75d. 

Breeding: 20a, 51a, 63c. 

284. Bubo lacteus Verreaux's Eagle Owl* 544 
Common resident in NW west of 46°E, but less so south of 5°N, in open 
woodland, clumps of trees, often near water. lie, 18abd, 19ab, 20abcd, 
45c, 60c, 63bc, 70b, 71bd. Breeding: lie, 18a, 20abcd. 

285. Ciccaba woodfordii nigricantior African Wood Owl+ 533 
Local presumed resident with only one old and 5 recent records in 
southern woodlands below 3°N. 60c, 66d, 71b, 75b. 

286. Glaucidium capense schef fieri Barred Owlet+ 540 
Probably not uncommon resident locally with 8 records in southern 
woodlands below 1°30'N, but only recently discovered. 66cd, 71b, 75b. 

287. Glaucidium perlata licua Pearl-spotted Owlet+ 538 
Uncommon presumed resident in far western bushland in NW and southern 
areas, recorded 10 times. lie, 18b, 19a, 45c, 70b. 

288. Otus leucotis leucotis White-faced Scops Owl 536 
Uncommon resident with 10 records in northern bushland west of 48° E 

and above 5°N. 2c, 19b, 20bc, 37a, 41c. Breeding: 19b, 20bc. 

289. Otus scops Scops Owl 5 34 
O.s. scops; O.s. senegalensis . Rare Palaearctic migrant (scops) 
recorded once in Mar in NW; uncommon resident {senegalensis) in western 
wooded areas in north and south. lie, 13a, 18bd, 19b, 20a, 28b, 48d, 
53b, 55c, 60ac, 62a, 71b, 75ab. Breeding 20a. 

290. Scotopelia peli Pel's Fishing Owl+ 546 
Rare presumed resident with 2 old records from Juba. 66ac. 

Family CAPRIMULGIDAE Nightjars 

291. Caprimulgus aegyptius aegyptius Egyptian Nightjar+ 561 
Rare Palaearctic migrant with one Dec record from NW. 10a. 

292. Caprimulgus clarus apatelius Slender-tailed Nightjat* 565 
Often abundant widespread resident below 5°N, and visitor to NW; in 
bushland and various lowland habitats, often near water, but 
differentiation from C. climacurus and C. fossii, both of which have 
been recorded in 19a is unclear. 18a, 19a, 45c, 60c, 62a, 63abc, 

66ac, 67c, 68ac, 71abd, 72a, 73d, 74bc , 75b. Breeding: 74b. 

293. Caprimulgus donaldsoni Donaldson-Smith's Nightjar* 552 
Common widespread resident in dry bushland, but unrecorded in NE and 
between 5° - 8°N. 18a, 19a, 20abc, 21d, 28c, 30b, 45c, 48d, 54d, 

56d, 59d, 60c, 61a, 63bc, 74b. Breeding: 20ab, 63c. 

294. Caprimulgus europaeus unwini Eurasian Night jar*+ 547 
Uncommon Palaearctic migrant above 9°N, and once in SE , recorded 10 


times May and Sep - Nov, but once a large number in NE in spring; 3 
records in spring and 7 in autumn; mostly unwini where identified, but 
europaeus and plumipes once each are questionable. 2c, 6b, 7a, lie, 
19a, 63c. 

295. Caprimulgus fraenatus Dusky Nightjar 548 
Locally fairly common breeding visitor Jun - Oct to restricted area 

in NW west of 45°E, and once in western area in south, in open areas 
near water with long grass and scrub. 18abc, 19a, 59d. Breeding: 18a. 

296. Caprimulgus inornatus Plain Nightjar 556 
Fairly common breeding visitor Mar - Sep in open bushland and stony 
ground in NW east to 46° E, and once in north central area. 2c, 10c, 
lie, 18b, 19a, 20abc, 30b. Breeding: lie, 20a. 

297. Caprimulgus nubicus Nubian Nightjar* 55 3 
C.n. tamaricis; C.n. torridus. Fairly common and widespread resident 

(torridus) in bushland west of 49°E; one record of northern tamaricis 
in north in Feb; southern birds below 3°N may be teiruensis 10c, 18b, 

19a, 20c, 27a, 28b, 29d, 30b, 33c, 38c, 43a, 63cd, 69a, 75d. 
Breeding: 19a. 

298. Caprimulgus stellatus stellatus Star-spotted Nightjar+ 555 
One old record from the NW border in Feb. 2c. 

299. Macrodipteryx longipennis Standard-winged Night jar+ 563 
African migrant with one old record in NW in Jun. 28c. 

300. Macrodipteryx vexillarius Pennant-winged Nightjar* 564 
African migrant with one record in SE in Aug. 63b. 

Family APODIDAE Swifts, Spinetails 
Sub- family Apodinae 

301. Apus af finis Little Swift* 643 
A. a. aerobates; A. a. galilejensis Abundant widespread resident in 
towns, coastal and rocky areas; galilejensis in NW coastal areas, and 
aerobates to south. 4c, 6a, 9c, lie, 13ac, 14a, 18ab, 19a, 20ad, 21c, 
28ab, 35b, 37a, 40c, 43bc, 48acd, 51a, 54d, 55c, 56b, 61a, 62ab, 63abc, 
68abc, 69a, 71abd, 72a, 73d, 74bc, 75abd. Breeding: 18a 51a, 63c, 68b. 

302. Apus apus pekinensis Eurasian Swift+ 636 
Palaearctic migrant with only one certain old record from NW, possibly 
overlooked among local A. niansae and berliozi . 18a. 

303. Apus berliozi bensoni Forbes-Watson's Swift* 

Locally common breeding resident in east coast sea caves, and probably 
northern mountains, present all year but probably partially migratory. 
4c, 14abc, 16c, 17c, 18a, 35b, 38d, 43bc, 51a, 63c, 64a, 69a. 
Breeding: 69a. 

304. Apus caffer White-rumped Swift+ 644 
Rare resident recorded on 7 occasions in south below 3°N, and once in 
north, May, Jun, Sep. 4c, 14a, 63b, 71a, 74b, 75a. Breeding 71a. 



305. Apus melba archer i Alpine Swift 640 
Common resident in northern rocky hills and mountains above 8 P N. 

4c, lie, 14a, 15a, 18a, 19ab, 20a, 21d, 28ab. Breeding: 19b. 

306. Apus niansae somalicus Nyanza Swift 637 
Locally abundant resident in rocky areas in north above 7°N; once in 

SW. 4c, 6c, lie, 13ac, 14ab, 18ab, 19ab, 20a, 21c, 22a, 28b, 37a, 
45c. Breeding: 19b. 

307. Cypsiurus parvus laemostigma Palm Swift* 646 
Fairly common and widespread presumed resident in south below 5° N in 
association with palms. 45c, 48a, 53b, 56bd, 60c, 63abc, 66c, 68b, 
71bd, 74b. 

Sub- family Chaeturinae 

308. Neafrapus boehmi sheppardi Bohm's Spinetailt 648 
One old record from far southern forest in Aug. 75b. 

309. Telacanthura ussheri stictilaema Mottle-throated Spinetail 647 
One old record from far southern forest in Aug. 75b. 

Family COLIIDAE Mousebirds 

310. Colius leucocephalus leucocephalus White-headed Mousebird* 567 
Fairly common and widespread presumed resident in southern bushland 
below 6°N. 43d, 50abc, 53b, 54a, 56b, 57bd, 61a, 63abcd, 66abcd, 

67d, 68bc, 69a, 70b, 71a, 72b, 74b. 

311. Colius striatus Speckled Mousebird* 566 
C.s. hilgerti; C.s. mombassicus . Locally common resident in south 
below 5°N in wide range of bushy habitat and woodland {mombassicus) , 
and known from one locality on NW border {hilgerti) . 18a, 45c, 48a, 
60c, 62b, 63abc, 66cd, 67d, 68ab, 70b, 71bd, 75ab. Breeding: 63c. 

312. Urocolius macrourus Blue-naped Mousebird* 568 
U.m. abyssinicus ; U.m. pulcher . Very common and widespread bushland 
resident throughout; abyssinicus above 5"N and pulcher to south. 2c, 
6c, 8b, lOcd, lie, 16a, 17c, 18b, 19ab, 20ab, 24abc, 28ab, 30b, 33cd, 
35c, 37a, 40d, 41ac, 43d, 48ad, 50c, 53abc, 54a, 55c, 56bcd, 60d, 61a, 
62ab, 63abcd, 66ad, 67d, 68abc, 69a, 71bd, 72ab, 73cd, 74abc , 75abd. 
Breeding: 66a. 

Family TROGONIDAE Trogon 

313. Apaloderma narina Narina's Trogon 570 
A.n. littorale; A.n. narina. Uncommon but elusive presumed resident 

in dense woodland and bush in NW west of 46" E (narina) and in south 
below 3°N (littorale) . lie, 19b, 20a, 60c, 66cd, 71bd, 75b. 

Family ALCEDINIDAE Kingfishers 
Sub-family Cerylinae 

314. Ceryle maxima Giant Kingfisher+ 466 
One certain old record from far south in Aug. 75b. 


Ceryle rudis rudis Pied Kingfisher* 465 

Common African migrant and presumed resident on sea coast and inland 
wetlands in south below 5°N. 45c, 53b, 56d, 60c, 61a, 63abcd, 66cd, 
67d, 68ab, 69a, 71bcd, 72a, 73d, 74bc, 75b. 

Sub- family Alcedininae 

Alcedo cristata Malachite Kingfisher* 470 

Locally very common presumed resident on southern inland wetlands 
below 3°N; one curious but certain record in NE. 16c, 62d, 63ab, 
67d, 68ab, 71d, 72a, 73d, 75acd. 

Ispidina picta picta Pygmy Kingfisher* 471 

Local rather uncommon presumed resident of a range of southern wooded 
and bushy habitats south of 5°N. 45c, 60c, 63abc, 66ac, 68ab, 70b, 
71bd, 72a. 

Sub-family Daceloninae 

!. Halcyon albiventris orientalis Brown-hooded Kingfisher 476 

Locally common presumed resident in southern riverine woodlands 
below 3°N. 60c, 66acd, 68ab, 71bd. 

Halcyon chelicuti chelicuti Striped Kingfisher* 479 

Common widespread presumed resident in open woodland and bushland 
south of 6"N; rare and local in NW west of 45° E. 18ab, 19a, 40c, 
48d, 62bd, 63abc, 66c, 67c, 68abc, 70d, 71bd, 72ab, 74ac, 75abc. 

i. Halcyon chloris abyssinica White- collared Kingfisher+ 480 

One old and one recent record from the same NW coast island, where 
possibly resident. 2c. 

321. Halcyon leucocephala Chestnut -bellied Kingfisher* 477 

H.l. hyacinthina; H.l. leucocephala. Locally common widespread 
resident and African migrant in variety of open wooded habitat, 
usually near water, above 9°N (leucocephala) , below 5°N (hyacinthina). 
2c, 7c, 9c, 10a, lie, 18a, 19a, 20ab, 44d, 45c, 48a, 56c, 60ac, 61a, 
62d, 63abcd, 66cd, 67c, 68ab, 69a, 71bd, 72a, 74b. 
Breeding: 20a, 48a, 63c. 

:. Halcyon senegaloides Mangrove Kingfisher 474 

Local and uncommon presumed resident of southern woodlands near water 
south of 3°N. 63b, 66c, 68bc, 71bd, 73d, 74c, 75abd. 

Family MEROPIDAE Bee-eaters 

I. Merops albicollis White-throated Bee-eater* 486 

Common widespread African migrant over any habitat, in north above 
9 P N and in south below 4°N; breeding locally in NW. 2c, 4d, 6bc, 
7a, 8bd, 9a, lOacd, lie, 13a, 15a, 16c, 18b, 19ab, 53a, 54ac, 63c, 
71bd. Breeding: 2c. 

I. Merops apiaster Eurasian Bee-eater *+ 481 

Seldom recorded Palaearctic passage migrant seen 3 times in Aug in 
NW and 4 times in Feb/Mar in SE. 19a, 20a, 63c. 



325. Merops nubicus nubicus Carmine Bee-eater* 484 
Locally abundant African migrant and breeding visitor over wetlands, 
coastal dunes, grasslands, etc.? widespread below 5°N, and less 

common in NW west of 46°E. 10c, lie, 20b, 44d, 45c, 48acd, 53ab, 
56b, 60c, 62d, 63abc, 66abcd, 67cd, 68abc, 69a, 71bd, 72a, 73d, 74abc, 
75abcd. Breeding: 10c, 45c, 63c, 69a, 74b. 

326. Merops oreobates Cinnamon- chested Bee-eater+ 489 
One old record from the south (Juba) in May. 60c. 

327. Merops persicus persicus Blue-cheeked Bee-eater 482 
Common widespread Palaearctic passage migrant and winter visitor 

Sep - Apr. 2c, 6bc, 7a, 9ab, lOac, 16c, 19a, 20ad, 25a, 28b, 30c, 
37a, 40c, 41c, 48d, 63ab, 68b, 71bd, 72a, 74b. 

328. Merops pusillus cyanostictus Little Bee-eater* 488 
Fairly common widespread resident in bushland and grassy areas in 

NW west of 48° E and above 8°N, and below 5°N in south. 2c, &b, 9a, 
lOacd, lie, 18ab, 19ab, 20abc, 29a, 45c, 48a, 49c, 53b, 54d, 56cd, 
59ad, 60c, 63abcd, 66ac, 67d, 68abc, 69a, 70b, 71abd, 72ab, 73c, 
74abc, 75abd. Breeding: lie, 19b, 20a, 45c, 69a, 72a. 

329. Merops revoilii Somali Bee-eater* 491 
Fairly common widespread resident in variety of bushland above 1°N. 

5c, 7a, 13c, 14abc, 15ab, 16c, 18b, 19abd, 20abcd, 21cd, 23a, 24abc, 
28abc, 29ab, 30bc , 31ac, 33c, 34d, 35abc, 36d, 37ac, 38bcd, 41b, 43abc, 
44d, 46a, 48d, 49c, 50abc, 53abc, 56b, 57bd, 58a, 60ac, 63cd, 68b. 
Breeding: 16c, 20b, 28b, 60a. 

330. Merops superciliosus superciliosus Madagascar Bee-eater* 482 
Common widespread resident and apparent migrant (of unknown origin 

and status) in NW west of 46° E and in south below 5°N; in variety of 
arid inland and coastal habitats, wetlands, bushland, etc. 2c, lOac, 
lie, 19ab, 20abcd, 44d, 48a, 54d, 56d, 61b, 62ad, 63abcd, 64a, 66d, 67d, 
68ab, 69a, 71bd, 74a, 75abd. Breeding: 2c, lOac, 20abc, 63cd, 69a. 

Family CORACIIDAE Rollers 

331. Coracias abyssinica Abyssinian Roller+ 458 
African migrant with one old record in the south. 56d. 

332. Coracias caudata lorti Lilac-breasted Roller* 460 
Common and widespread resident and apparent African migrant in 
bushland and open woodland in NW and south of 8°N, but unrecorded in 

NE and eastern side of country above 3°N. 2c, 8d, 9c, lOd, lie, 13ac, 
18ab, 19a, 20abcd, 28a, 30b, 37a, 40bcd, 41c, 45c, 48a, 53bc, 54cd, 
56d, 60acd, 61abc, 62a, 63c, 66acd, 67ad, 68bc, 69a, 71abd, 72ab, 73d, 
74abc, 75abd. Breeding: 20b, 75b. 

333. Coracias garrulus garrulus Eurasian Roller* 451 
Locally abundant and widespread Palaearctic passage migrant mainly 
in spring in Apr - May; uncommon overwintering in southern bushland 
from Oct. 2c, 6c, 10a, lie, 16cd, 18a, 19a, 20a, 24b, 30b, 31a, 
33cd, 34d, 48d, 54c, 61b, 62a, 63abcd, 68a, 69a, 71bd, 72a. 


Coracias naevia naevia Rufous-crowned Roller* 461 

Locally fairly common and widespread breeding visitor or -resident 
west of 49° E to lightly wooded habitat and bushland. 4c, 8b, 9c, 
10c, lie, 13a, 14a, 18ab, 19ab, 20abd, 21c, 27b, 28a, 30b, 33b, 
40cd, 41c, 45c, 48ac, 49b, 50bc, 53d, 56d, 57d, 58a, 59a, 60c, 61ac, 
62a, 63c, 71d. Breeding: 20a. 

Eurystomus glaucurus suahelicus Broad-billed Roller* 463 

Uncommon presumed resident in southern woodlands south of 3°N. 
60c, 63c, 66acd, 71bd, 74b. 

Family UPUPIDAE Hoopoe 

Upupa epops Hoopoe* 517/518 

U.e. africana; U.e. epops; U.e. senegalensis . Fairly common and 
widespread resident in woodland, bushland and near habitations above 
4°N, mainly in west and only twice in far south (senegalensis) ; two 
Sep records of africana in far south: Palaearctic epops uncommon 
overwintering and presumed passage migrant mainly in north above 4°N. 
2c, 4d, 6c, 8b, 9ac, lie, 13ac, 14ac, 16ac, 18ab, 19ab, 20abcd, 22a, 
23a, 24ab, 28ab, 30b, 33bd, 36d, 40cd, 41ab, 45c, 48a, 53a, 60acd, 
62a, 63c, 66c, 71b, 75a. Breeding: lie, 19a, 40c. 

Family PHOENICULIDAE Wood Hoopoes 

Phoeniculus cyanomelas schalowi Scimitarbill 526 

Uncommon presumed resident of southern woodlands below 3°N. 
60c, 66acd, 71bd, 73d, 75ab. 

Phoeniculus minor minor Abyssinian Scimitarbill* 527 

Fairly common widespread resident throughout in bushland and light 
woodland. 2c, 6c, 8bd, 9c, 10c, lie, 13ac, 14c, 15c, 18abd, 19ab, 
20abcd, 21cd, 23ad, 24bc, 28ab, 33b, 37a, 40c, 41bc, 45d, 48ad, 
49bc, 50abc, 53abc, 54acd, 56b, 57b, 59a, 60cd, 61abc, 63c, 66ad, 
68c, 72a, 75d. Breeding: 20abc, 63c. 

Phoeniculus purpureus Green Wood Hoopoe 519,521 

P.p. marwitzi; P.p. somaliensis . Locallv common widespread 
resident in more westerly areas in variety of wooded habitats, west 
of 49° E in north and west of 44° E in south, but unrecorded 5° - 9°N 
(somaliensis) ; marwitzi once only in far south. 9c, 10c, lie, 13a, 
14c, 18ab, 19ab, 20abd, 23a, 45c, 53b, 54c, 60c, 66abcd, 71b, 74b, 75b. 
Breeding: 18b, 20ab. 

Family BUCEROTinAE Hornbills 
Sub-family Bucerotinae 

TocJcus alboterminatus suahelicus Crowned Hornbill 509 

Uncommon local lower Juba forest resident south of 2°N. 66ac, 71bd, 
Breeding: 71b. 

1. Tockus deckeni Von der Decken's Hornbill* 507 

Common bushland and woodland presumed resident south of 8°N, avoiding 
more arid areas. 33b, 40c, 45c, 48acd, 53abcd, 54ad, 55c, 56bc, 57d, 
59d, 60acd, 61abc, 62ab, 63abc, 66abcd, 67cd, 68c, 69a, 70b, 71bd, 
72ab, 73d, 74abc, 75abd. 



342. Tockus erythrorhynchus erythrorhynchus Red-billed Hornbill* 505 
Common widespread bushland and woodland resident north of equator, 

but absent in more arid NE. 4c, 8d, 9c, 10a, lie, 14a, 18b, 19abc, 
20abc, 21c, 23d, 24a, 28ab, 29a, 30c, 33bcd, 37a, 40cd, 41c, 48acd, 
50c, 53abcd, 54acd, 55c, 56b, 58a, 59a, 60acd, 61abc, 62ab, 63abc, 
66abd, 67a, 71a. Breeding: lie, 20a. 

343. Tockus flavirostris Yellow-billed Hornbill 506 
T.f. flavirostris: T.f. somaliensis. Fairly common widespread 
resident of bushland, the more westerly populations being flavirostris; 
avoids most of eastern coastal strip. 2c, 3cd, 4c, 6c, 8d, 9c, lOd, 
lie, 13a, 14ac, 18b, 19ab, 20ab, 23a, 28a, 30b, 33b, 35b, 40c, 41c, 
48cd, 49b, 52c, 53abc, 54acd, 56b, 59d, 60acd, 61abc, 62a, 66abcd, 71c. 
Breeding: lie, 20a. 

344. Tockus hewprichii Hemprich's Hornbill 512 
Uncommon presumed resident north of 9"N and west of 49°E, in wooded 
rocky areas. 4c, 9c, lie, 13a, 14ab, 18a, 19b, 20a. 

345. Tockus nasutus nasutus Grey Hornbill* 504 
Fairly common widespread presumed resident south of 4°N in variety of 
wooded country. 54d, 55c, 56d, 60c, 61ab, 62ab, 63abc, 66abcd, 67d, 
71abd, 72ab, 73d, 74abc, 75abd. 

Sub-family Bucoracinae 

346. Bucorvus abyssinicus Abyssinian Ground Hornbill+ 516 
Rare and local presumed resident in open country in NW west of 48°E. 
18a, 19b, 22a. 

Family CAPITONIDAE Barbets, Tinkerbirds 

347. Lybius melanocephalus Black-throated Barbet* 583 
L.m. blandi; L.m. melanocephalus. A widespread common presumed 
resident of bushland {blandi) ; melanocephalus is only known from the 
far NW. 2c, 6c, 8b, lie, 18ab, 19ab, 20abc, 21c, 28ab, 29a, 30b, 33b, 
35b, 36d, 37a, 38d, 40c, 41c, 48acd, 50b, 52b, 53bc, 54acd, 57bd, 58a, 
59d, 60c, 61abc, 63abc, 66bd, 68ac, 70bd, 71a, 72b, 74b. 

348. Lybius melanopterus Brown-breasted Barbet 580 
Locally uncommon resident in southern riverine woodland below 3°N. 
60c, 63c, 66c, 71bd, 74b. Breeding: 71b. 

349. Pogoniulus pusillus Red- fronted Tinkerbird* 594 
P.p. af finis; P.p. uropygialis . Fairly common widespread resident 

in bushland and woodland, with uropygialis above 9°N and affinis south 
of 5°N. 4c, 13a, 14ab, 18ab, 19ab, 20a, 45c, 48a, 54d, 60c, 61a, 63bc, 
66acd, 67c, 68a, 71bd, 72a, 75abcd. Breeding: 19a, 20a. 

350 . Trachyphonus darnaidii boehmi d'Arnaud's Barbet* 603 
Common widespread presumed resident of bushland south of 4°N. 52b, 56c, 
60c, 61ac, 62abd, 63abc, 65c, 66ac, 67d, 68abc, 69a, 71abcd, 74b. 

351. Trachyphonus erythrocephalus Red and Yellow Barbet 601 
T.e. shelley i; T.e. versicolor . Fairly common resident of bushland 
with a westerly distribution north of 2"N ishelleyi) ; the western 



versicolor just reaches Somalia around 4°N. 18b, 19b, 20abc, 23d, 
28ab, 30b, 36d, 37a, 40cd, 41ac, 45c, 49b, 53c, 54d, 59a. 
Breeding: 20b. 

352. Trachyphonus margaritatus somalicus Yellow-breasted Barbet 602 
Fairly common bushlarr" resident north of 9°N. 2c, 4cd, 6c, 8b, 9a, 
lie, 13ac, 14c, 15a, 18b, 19ab, 20ab. Breeding: No square data 

Family INDICATORIDAE Honeyguides 

353. Indicator indicator indicator Black-throated Honeyguide* 605 
Uncommon presumed resident of woodland and bushland with disjunct 
distribution north of 9°N and west of 48" E, and again south of 2°30'N. 
lie, 13a, 18b, 19ab, 63c, 66c, 68b, 71b, 75ab. 

354. Indicator minor Lesser Honeyguide* 608 
I.m. diadematus; I.m. minor. Locally fairly common patchily 
distributed presumed resident of variety of woodland; diadematus in 

NW above 9°N and west of 46° E, and minor south of 4°N. lie, 20a, 
44d, 60c, 63c, 71abd, 74b. 

355. Indicator variegatus Scaly- throated Honeyguide+ 606 
Rare presumed resident recorded 8 times in thicker southern woodlands 
below 2°N. 66a, 71bd, 74b, 75ab. 

356. Prodotiscus regulus Wahlberg's Honeybird+ 612. 
One old record from the NW in July. 19a. 

Family PICIDAE Woodpeckers, Wrynecks 
Sub-' family Jynginae 

357. Jynx torquilla torquilla Eurasian Wryneck + 634 
Palaearctic migrant twice recorded in the NW in Oct/Nov. 18b, 20a. 

Sub-family Picinae 

358. Campethera abingoni mombassica Golden- tailed Woodpecker 622 
Uncommon presumed resident of southern woodlands south of 2°N. 

66c, 71bd, 75b. 

359. Campethera cailliautii cailliautii Little Spotted Woodpecker+ 620 
Rare and local presumed resident recorded 7 times in southern 
woodlands south of 1°N. 71b, 75a. 

360. Campethera nubica pallida Nubian Woodpecker* 619 
Common widespread resident of variety of woodland and bushland. 

2c, 4cd, 6c, 8b, 10cd, lie, 13a, 14ab, 18ab, 19ab, 20abc, 23d, 24bc, 
28b, 30b, 33bc, 37a, 38d, 40cd, 41c, 45c, 48d, 49b, 52bc, 53abc, 54c, 
56bcd, 59d, 60ac, 61a, 63bcd, 66d, 67cd, 68bc, 70b, 71abd, 72ab, 73d, 
74b, 75ab. Breeding: lie, 20a. 

361. Dendropicos fuscescens hemprichii Cardinal Woodpecker* 623 
Fairly common widespread resident of variety of woodland and bushland. 
2c, 6c, 8b, 10c, lie, 14b, 18b, 19abc, 20ab, 24c, 28a, 35b, 45c, 52c, 
53c, 54a, 60c, 61a, 63c, 66ac, 67d, 68bc, 71ad, 74ab, 75b. Breeding: 20a. 



362. Thripias namaquus schoensis Bearded Woodpecker 629 
Uncommon resident in NW west of 46°E and south of 5°N in bushland and 
open woodland. lie, 18b, 19ab, 20abc, 45c, 66d, 71bd, 74b. 

Breeding: 18b. 

Family ALAUDIDAE Larks 

363. Alaemon alaudipes desertorum Hoopoe Lark 670 
Common resident in sparsely vegetated northern coastal areas. 

2acd, 3c, 4cd, 5c, 9ab, lOacd, lie, 13a. Breeding: 2c. 

364. Alaemon hamertoni Lesser Hoopoe Lark 671 
A.h. altera; A.h. hamertoni; A.h. tertia. Common resident endemic 

on tussocky grass plains inland in north above 6°N, but extending down 
east coast to 2°N; tertia in NW to ca . 46° E, altera between 47" and 
49°E, and hamertoni below 7°N; race of NE birds unknown. 7a, 13ab, 
14abc, 16acd, 19d, 20cd, 21bd, 22a, 23ad, 24abc, 25ab, 30abcd, 31acd, 
34d, 35c, 37a, 38b, 43d, 51a, 63d, 64bc. Breeding: 19d, 20cd. 

365. Ammomanes deserti Desert Lark 673 
A.d. akeleyi; A.d. assabensis . Common resident throughout north 
above 6°N, especially in rocky and stony areas near coast, in mountains 
and on plains; all akeleyi, except along NW border where assabensis 
occurs. 2c, 4cd, 5c, 6c, 8b, 9a, lOcd, lie, 13a, 14a, 15ad, 16acd, 
19ab, 20abcd, 21bc, 23d, 24abc, 25a, 28ab, 29ad, 30bcd, 31acd, 35bc, 
36d, 37a. Breeding: 4c, 8b, 20a. 

366. Calandrella brachydactyla Short- toed Lark*+ 684 
C.b. brachydactyla; C.b. longipennis. Palaearctic migrant with one 
old record in NW in Jan, probably longipennis; very recent Nov/Dec 
records on SE coast include both brachydactyla and longipennis. 

20d, 63c, 69a. 

367. Calandrella cinerea daaroodensis Red-capped Lark 686 
Fairly common presumed resident on grassy plains in central northern 
areas above 8°N and between 45° - 49°E. 13ac, 14a, 20acd, 23a, 27b, 

368. Calandrella obbiensis Obbia Lark* 688 
Abundant endemic resident in short grassy areas on plains and dunes 

in narrow coastal strip between 1°30'N and 7°N. 38b, 43bcd, 50b, 51a, 
57bd, 63cd, 64abc, 69a. Breeding: 63cd, 64ac, 69a. 

369. Calandrella somalica Rufous Short- toed Lark 685 
C.s. perconfusa; C.s. somalica. Common resident on grassy plains 

in NW, west of 49°E and above 8°N; range of western perconfusa and 
eastern somalica separates at ca . 46°E. 13ac, 18abd, 19acd, 20acd, 
21cd, 23a, 27a, 28bc. Breeding: 19d, 20cd. 

370. Eremopterix leucotis Chestnut-backed Sparrow Lark* 679 
E.l. leucotis; E.l. madaraszi . Locally common presumed resident 

in SE below 3°N {madaraszi) and NW border (leucotis) , in grassy 
areas and cultivated land. 18a, 62d, 63bc, 67cd, 71d, 72a, 74b. 



371. Eremopterix nigriceps welanauchen White-fronted Sparrow Lark* 680 
Very common widespread resident south to 1°N on open sandy plains 

and coastal dunes. 2acd, 4cd, 5c, 6ab, 7a, 9ab, lOacd, lie, 13a, 

14ac, 15ab, 16c, 20d, 24abc, 25a, 28b, 29c, 30bc, 31ac, 33c, 34d, , 

35ab, 36d, 37a, 38bd, 43bcd, 49c, 50b, 5la, 57d, 60c, 63cd, 64ab, 
68bc, 69a. Breeding: 2c, 8b, 28b. 

372. Eremopterix signata signata Chestnut-headed Sparrow Lark* 681 
Often abundant resident and wanderer throughout below 10°N, in open 
grassy areas. 19d, 20acd, 21bcd, 23c, 24b, 28ab, 30b, 36d, 37a, 40cd, 
41ac, 46a, 48ad, 52b, 54cd, 56cd, 57d, 60c. 61ab, 62bd, 63abcd, 68b, 
69a, 74b. Breeding: 19d, 20cd. 

373. Galerida cristata somaliensis Crested Lark 675 
Very common resident on dry sandy plains and dunes in north, west of 

49° E and above 9° 30' N, extending up to 100 km inland in west, but 
confined to coast in east. 2acd, 4c, 8b, 9ab, lOac, lie, 14a, 18b, 
19a, 20ab. Breeding: 2c, 10a. 

374. Galerida fremantlii fremantlii Short-tailed Lark* 678 
Fairly common, sometimes abundant, resident widely distributed in 
light bushland and open grassy areas south to 5°N and in coastal 

strip south to 1°N. lie, 13ac, 14b, 20abcd, 21bd, 22a, 23c, 24ac, 
28abc, 30abcd, 33cd, 34d, 35ab, 36d, 37ac, 38bd, 41b, 49c, 50b, 
57bd, 58a, 63cd, 69a. Breeding: 20a. 

375. Galerida malabarica Short-crested Lark* 676 
G.m. ellioti; G.m. mallablensis . The southern coastal population 

has been separated as mallablensis , but its range northwards is not 
known. Abundant widespread resident south to 5°N in open grassy and 
light bush areas, dunes and broken ground, extending down east coast 
to 1°N. 10c, lie, 13ac, 14c, 18ab, 19ab, 20abcd, 22a, 23abcd, 24ab, 
28ab, 30a, 33d, 34d, 35b, 36bd, 37ac, 38bd, 41ac, 43cd, 49c, 50bc, 
51a, 57d, 58a, 63cd, 64abc, 68abcd, 69a. Breeding: 19a, 20acd, 63c, 

376. Mirafra africana sharpii Red Somali Lark 659 
Locally fairly common presumed resident on open grassy plains in 

NW west of 45°E. This should be sharpii according to original 
orthography. 18ad, 19cd. 

377. Mirafra africanoides Fawn-coloured Lark 661 
M.a. alopex; M.a. intercedens . Locally abundant presumed resident 

in NW, east to 47°E, where intercedens occurs west of 44°E and alopex 
east of 46° E; in grassy sandy areas in light bush; twice in south near 
western border {intercedens) . 2c, 18abd, 21c, 28ac, 45c, 53a. 

378. Mirafra ashi Ash's Lark+ 

A local endemic recently discovered in tufty grassland at one site 
in coastal SE, apparently breeding in Jul. 63d. 

379. Mirafra cantillans marginata Singing Bush Lark 654 
Locally common presumed resident on NW border and in two areas near 
east coast in south, in grasslands, light bush and cultivation. 

18ab, 50b, 57d, 58a, 68a, 71d, 74b. 



380. Mirafra collaris Collared Lark 663 
Locally common resident on red sandy soils in low bushy tussocked 
grasslands in north-central and central areas and along SW border. 

21c, 28ac, 34d, 35bc, 38bcd, 43a, 52c, 59a. Breeding: 59a. 

381. Mirafra gilletti arorihensis Gillett's Lark 664 
Fairly common widespread resident of open bushland north of 2°N. 

9a, lie, 14c, 18ab, 19a, 20abcd, 23a, 24b, 27a, 28ab, 33cd, 35b, 
36d, 37a, 38d, <i0c , 41c, 46a, 48d, 49c, 50abc, 52bc, 53abc, 54a, 
56b, 57bd, 58a, 59ad, 60c. Breeding: lie, 18b, 28b, 52c, 59a. 

382. Mirafra hypermetra hypermetra Red-winged Bush Lark* 657 
Uncommon resident in SE below 3° N in open bushland. 62d, 63abc, 

68b, 71b, 74bc. Breeding: 71b. 

383. Mirafra poecilosterna Pink-breasted Lark* 66 r . 
Fairly common presumed resident in bushland in south below 3°N. 

59d, 60ac, 61a, 62ab, 63abcd, 66b, 67a, 68b, 69a, 70d, 72b, 74abc, 

384. Mirafra ruddi archer i Long-clawed Lark 668 
Fairly common resident in open grasslands in extremely restricted 
range on NW border. 18a. Breeding: 18a. 

385. Mirafra rufocinnamomea fischeri Flappet Lark+ 660 
Rare presumed resident recorded 5 times May - Jul in lightly wooded 

and bushed Juba grasslands below 3°N. 60c, 71b, 74b. 

386. Mirafra somalica Somali Long-billed Lark 669 
M.s. rochei; M.s. somalica . The southern coastal population has 

been separated as rochei, but its range northwards is not known. 

Fairly common widespread endemic resident of open coastal and inland 

grasslands below 10°30'N to 6°N then along coast to 2°N. 

13c, 17c, 19d, 20cd, 21d, 23abcd, 24abc, 31acd, 34d, 35c, 37c, 38bcd, 

43abd, 50b, 51a, 57d, 58a, 63d, 64ab. 

Breeding: 20cd. 

Family HIRUNDINIElAE Swallows, Martins 

387. Delichon urbica urbica House Martin*+ 1074 
Rare Palaearctic migrant overwintering (below 4°N) and on passage 

Oct and Dec - Mar with one old record in north and 6 recent in south, 
lie, 54a, 63c, 68b. 

388. Hirundo abyssinica abyssinica Striped Swallow* 1065 
Locally common resident below 5°N, wide-ranging and especially 
associated with bridges and buildings. 48acd, 54d, 61a, 62abd, 63abc, 
67c, 68abc, 71abd, 72a, 74c, 75a. Breeding: 48d, 63a, 68b. 

389. Hirundo aethiopica amadoni Ethiopian Swallow* 1057 
Common widespread resident associated with caves, rocks, man-made 
structures, wells and coastal cliffs; absent from much of NE. 

lie, 13ac, 18ab, 19a, 20abd, 21cd, 22a, 24a, 28ab, 29a, 30c, 33cd, 
34a, 35b, 36d, 37ac, 40c, 41bc, 43c, 48acd, 51a, 53b, 54d, 56bc, 57d, 

4 8 


59a, 60c, 62d, 63abcd, 64a, 66d, 67cd, 68abc, 69a, 71bd, 72ab, 74ac, 
75abd. Breeding: 19a, 20a, 21c, 22a, 28b, 30c, 48d, 63d, 69a. 

390. Hirundo daurica rufula Red-rumped Swallow*+ 1062 
Five records at end of May from cliffs in restricted area of 

northern mountains, where presumably resident; one in south in Feb 
may be H.d. emini . 4c, 13a, 14ab, 63c. 

391. Hirundo fuligula African Rock Martin 1073 
H.f. arabica; H.f. obsoleta. Common resident and probable visitor 

in north above 9°N associated with buildings and rocky areas 
[arabica); Palaearctic obsoleta recorded in north (White 1961). 
4c, lie, 13a, 14ab, 19ab, 20a. Breeding: lie, 19ab, 20a. 

392. Hirundo rustica rustica Eurasian Swallow* 1054 
Abundant Palaearctic passage migrant and winter visitor throughout, 

Jul - May, in almost any habitat. 2c, 4cd, 6abc, 9ab, lOac, l?a, 14ac, 
16cd, 17c, 18ab, 19ab, 20acd, 21c, 23c, 27a, 28b, 30abc, 33bcd, 37a, 
38d, 40cd, 41bc, 43c, 48ad, 50bc, 51a, 53b, 54c, 55c, 56b, 57bd, 58a, 
60a, 62abd, 63abcd, 64ab, 66bd, 67cd, 68abc, 69a, 71bd, 72ac, 74b. 

393. Hirundo senegalensis monteiri Mosque Swallow+ 1063 
One recent record from the south in Sep. 75b. 

394. Hirundo smithii smithii Wire- tailed Swallow 1061 
Uncommon local resident along streams and rivers in south below 3°N. 
59a, 60c, 63b, 66c, 68b, 71d. Breeding: 59a. 

395. Riparia cincta suahelica Banded Martin+ 1070 
Two recent records from one area in south Jan/Feb. 67c, 72a. 

396. Riparia riparia riparia Sand Martin* 1068 
Recently recorded as fairly common Palaearctic winter visitor and 
passage migrant over open country and wetlands Oct - Apr below 4°N. 
53b, 61b, 63bc, 64a, 67c, 68b, 72a. 

Family DICRURIDAE Drongos 

397. Dicrurus adsimilis divaricatus Drongo* 1088 
Common and widespread resident in bushland and open woodlands. 

2c, 6c, 8bd, 9ac, lOacd, lie, 13ac, 14abc, 18ab, 19abc, 20abd, 21cd, 
23cd, 24abc, 28ab, 29ad, 33b, 34a, 40c, 41c, 45cd, 53ac, 54ac, 56bc, 
59ad, 60ac, 61ac, 62ab, 63abcd, 66ad, 67d, 68ac, 70b, 71abd, 73d, 
74ab, 75ab. Breeding: 18a, 19a, 20a. 

398. Dicrurus ludwigii ludwigii Square-tailed Drongo 1089 
Rather uncommon presumed resident in southern forests below 2 J U. 

66cd, 70d, 71bd, 74b, 75b. 

Family ORIOLIDAE Orioles 

399. Oriolus auratus notatus African Golden Oriole+ 1165 
African migrant with 3 old and 3 recent records in Aug and Oct in 
southern woodlands below 3°N. 60c, 66c, 71d, 74b, 75b. 



400. Oriolus larvatus rolleti Black-headed Oriole* 1167 
Fairly common resident (commoner further south) in southern wooded 
areas below 5°N; 3 old records in NW west of 46°E. 19ab, 20c, 45c, 
54d, 59d, 60c, 63bc, 66abcd, 67c, 68bc, 70b, 71abd, 72ab, 73d, 74abc, 
75abc. Breeding: 71d. 

401. Oriolus oriolus oriolus Golden Oriole* 1164 
Palaearctic migrant abundant on autumn passage Sep/Oct in north 

above 8°N, but many fewer in spring Apr /May; only 3 recent records 
in south below 3°N in Oct. 2c, 4c, 5c, 6bc, 9a, 10a, 14a, 18ab, 
19a, 20b, 28a, 60a, 63c, 71b. 

Family CORVIDAE Crows 

402. Corvus albus Pied Crow* 1172 
Locally common resident in towns and open country, but confined to 

SE and eastern N coasts; hybridises with C. ruficollis in SE. 
4c, 5c, 6ab, lie, 13a, 20a, 63cd, 68bc, 69a, 71d, 74abc, 75b. 
Breeding: 63c. 

403. Corvus capensis Cape Rook* 1173 
Common resident on grassy plains and cultivations in north above 

8°N and down east coast to 2°N outside the range of C. albus. 

13c, 18abd, 19bcd, 20abcd, 21d, 22a, 23d, 24ac, 30c, 43cd, 50b, 51a, 

57d, 58a, 63cd, 64ac. Breeding: 18a, 19d, 20abcd, 63d, 64a. 

404. Corvus crassirostris Thick-billed Raven+ 1176 
One old record in the NW of wanderers from Ethiopia. 18d, 19c. 

405. Corvus rhipidurus Fan- tailed Raven 1177 
Very common resident in towns, villages, inland and coastal areas, 

and rocky places, in north above 9°N and down east coast to 5°N. 
4cd, 5c, 6ab, 7a, 8b, 9a, 10c, lie, 13a, 14ab, 15a, 16c, 17c, 18a, 
19b, 20a, 35b, 43d. Breeding: lie, 20a. 

406. Corvus ruficollis edithae Brown-necked Raven* 1171 
Very common widespread resident, occurring almost anywhere, but 
absent some areas; hybridises with C. albus in SE. 2acd, 9ab, lOacd, 
lie, 13a, 14ac, 15a, 18b, 19ab, 20abcd, 21bd, 22a, 23ac, 24abc, 28ab, 
29cd, 30bc, 33bc, 34a, 35ac, 36d, 37ac, 38bd, 40cd, 41abc, 48cd, 50bc, 
53abd, 54ac, 57bd, 58a, 60acd, 61a, 62bd, 63cd, 64a, 66d, 67d, 68bc, 
69a, 74b. Breeding: 10a, 20abcd, 36d, 37ac, 41ab, 63c, 68b, 69a. 

Family PARIDAE Tits 

407. Parus afer thruppi Grey Tit 1151 
Uncommon local resident in bushland above 8°N and west of 49" E in 
north and below 5°N in south. 10c, lie, 13c, 14bc, 18ab, 19ab, 20abc, 
28a, 45d, 49b, 52c, 54ac, 59a, 61a, 74b. Breeding: lie, 20b. 

Family REMIZIDAE Penduline Tits 

408. Remiz musculus Mouse-coloured Penduline Tit* 1161 
Uncommon presumed resident in bushland north of 2°N with very patchy 
distribution, but probably overlooked. 5c, 8b, 18b, 28c, 50c, 52c, 
54a, 57d, 60c, 61a, 63bcd. 



Family TIMALIIDAE Babblers 

409. Turdoides aylmeri aylmeri Scaly Chatterer* 733 
Locally very common presumed resident in thickets and scrub in NW 

west of 46° E and south of 7°N, but patchy distribution. 18b, 19a, 
20bcd, 37a, 38d, 50bc, 54a, 58a, 59d, 63bcd, 69a, 71a, 73d. 

410. Turdoides leucopygius smithii White-rumped Babbler 728 
Fairly common presumed resident in thickets in the NW west of 46° E. 

lie, 18a, 19b, 20a. 

411. Turdoides rubiginosus Rufous Chatterer* 732 
T.r. heuglini; T.r. sharpii. Locally very common presumed resident 

in bushland, various woodlands and thickets south of 3°N (heuglini) ; 
also at Dolo (sharpii). 45c, 55c, 62abd, 63abc, 66c, 68bc, 69a, 71d, 
74b, 75a. 

412. Turdoides squamulatus Scaly Babbler* 724 
T.s. carolinae; T.s. jubaensis; T.s. squamulatus. Resident in 
riverine thickets and forest and woodland undergrowth; carolinae 
uncommon along Shebelle, jubaensis very common along Juba; squamulatus 
recorded twice in far south. 45c, 53b, 60c, 63bc, 66acd, 71bd, 75a. 
Breeding: 63c. 

Family CAMPEPHAGIDAE Cuckoo Shrikes 

413. Campephaga flava Black Cuckoo Shrike+ 1081 
Seldom recorded species of unknown status, with 3 old and 6 recent 
records Jun - Oct, in woodland south of 2° N down Juba and southwards. 
60c, 66c, 71bd, 73d, 74c, 75b. 

Family PYCNONOTIDAE Bulbuls 

414. Andropadus importunus insularis Zanzibar Sombre Greenbul* 773 
Locally common resident in riverine, coastal and southern woodlands 

and scrub from ca . 4°N southwards. 45c, 60c, 63abc, 66acd, 67c, 
68abc, 71bd, 72a, 74b, 75ab. Breeding: 63c. 

415. Chlorocichla flaviventris centralis Yellow-bellied Greenbul 769 
Locally very common presumed resident below 1°30'N in lower Juba 

and southern woodlands, especially secondary growth. 66cd, 71bd, 75ab. 

416. Nicator chloris gularis Nicator+ 1148 
Presumed resident with 2 old records but recently found to be common; 

7 times in lower Juba and extreme southern forests and secondary 
growth. 66c, 71bd, 74b, 75ab. 

417. Phyllastrephus fischeri Fischer's Greenbul+ 758 
Rare presumed resident with 3 old records along lower Juba. 71bd. 

418. Phyllastrephus strepitans Northern Brownbul* 754 
Locally common presumed resident south of 5°N in wide variety of 

thick cover from forest undergrowth to coastal bushland. 44d, 45c, 
48a, 53b, 55c, 60c, 61a, 62a, 63bc, 66ac, 67cd, 68bc, 69a, 71bd, 
72a, 74b, 75ab. 



419. Phyllastrephus terrestris suahelicus Brownbul+ 753 
Rare presumed resident with 2 old and 1 recent record in lower Juba 
woodland and thickets. 66b, 71bd. 

420. Pycnonotus barbatus Common Bulbul* 743,744 
P.b. dodsoni; P.b. somaliensis . Very common resident throughout 

in almost any habitat with vegetation; somaliensis is confined to 
NW west of 46° E but overlaps with dodsoni around the perimeter of 
its range. 2c, 4c, 5c, 6bc, 7a, 8b, 10c, lie, 13a, 14ab, 15a, 16c, 
18ab, 19ab, 20ab, 21d, 22a, 23d, 24c, 28ab, 30bc, 33bc, 35b, 37a, 
38d, 40c, 41c, 43c, 48acd, 49ab, 50abc, 51a, 52c, 53abcd, 54acd, 56bc, 
57bd, 58a, 59ad, 60cd, 61abc, 62abd, 63abcd, 66abcd, 67acd, 68abc, 
69a, 71abd, 72ab, 73cd, 74abc, 75abd. Breeding: lie, 20a, 61a, 63c. 

Family TURDIDAE Thrushes, Robins, etc. 

421. Cercomela dubia Sombre Rock Chat+ 872 
One old record from the northern mountains where presumably a rare 

and local resident. lie. 

422. Cercomela melanura lypura Black-tailed Rock Chat 869 
Fairly common resident in north above 7°N on areas of broken ground, 
dry wadis and among rocks. 4c, 5c, 6a, 7a, 9c, lOd, lie, 13ac, 14a, 
16c, 17c, 18b, 19abc, 20ac, 30bc , 35b. Breeding: 19b, 20a. 

423. Cercomela scotocerca Brown-tailed Rock Chat 870 
C.s. spectatrix; C.s. validior. Fairly common resident in north 
above 9°N (spectatrix) , and extremely locally south of 7°N (validior) 

on rocky slopes with vegetation. 4c, 5c, 6a, 9a, lie, 14a, 15a, 20a, 
30b, 35b. Breeding: 15a. 

424. Cercotrichas galactotes Rufous Bush Chat* 934 
C.g. familiaris; C.g. hamertoni / C.g. minor; C.g. syriacus. Locally 
common Palaearctic passage migrant and winter visitor Sep - May 
(familiaris , syriacus) and resident (minor, hamertoni) ; collected 

migrants about equally divided in both races and have scattered records 
throughout in bush and scrubland, particularly common in NE in spring ; 
respective ranges of poorly differentiated races unclear, but occur 
widely above 5°N and possibly further south but confusion with migrants 
exists. Migrants: 4c, 6b, 7a, 8b, 9a, 10c, lie, 14b, 18ad, 19ab, 20ab, 
24bc, 31d, 35b, 45c, 60c, 61c, 63c, 66c, 69a, 71d, 72b, 74a. 
Residents: 2c, 8b, 9a, lie, 33d, 37a, 41bc, 60c. 

Breeding: 2c (minor). Unidentified: 5c, 6c, 15ab, 28b, 33c, 41a, 62a, 
63a, 74b. 

425. Cercotrichas leucophrys White-browed Scrub Robin* 911 
C.J. eluta; C.J. leucoptera. Common and widespread resident, but 
absent from NE, in bushland and scrub; leucoptera in NW to ca . 8°N, 

and eJuta south of 7°N. 8bd, 10c, lie, 18ab, 19abc, 20bc, 28b, 
30bd, 33b, 37a, 40c, 41c, 45c, 48cd, 50c, 53abcd, 54ac, 55c, 57bd, 
59a, 60cd, 61a, 62ab, 63abcd, 66d, 68bc, 69a, 71abd, 72ab, 73cd, 
74abc. Breeding: 8d , 19a, 63a. 



426. Cercotrichas podobe podobe Black Bush Robin 916 
Very uncommon, apparently non-breeding African visitor Nov - Mar 

to NW and north coast west of 49° E, in low bush and thickets. 
2c, 4c, 8b, 10c, lie, 20b. 

427. Cercotrichas quadrivirgata quadrivirgata Eastern Bearded Scrub 913 

Fairly common presumed resident in Juba and other forest undergrowth 
south of 3°N. 60c, 66acd, 71b, 74b, 75a. 

428. Cichladusa guttata rufipennis Spotted Morning Thrush* 909 
• Common resident in bushland and thickets in south below 5°N. 

45c, 54d, 59d, 60c, 62b, 63abc, 68abc, 69a, 71bd, 73d, 74b, 75a. 
Breeding: 63c. 

429. Cossypha heuglini intermedia White-browed Robin Chat* 884 
Very uncommon presumed resident south of 3°N in riverine thickets 

and woodland undergrowth. 60c, 63c, 66c, 71bd, 75b. 

430. Cossypha natalensis intensa Red-capped Robin Chat 890 
Common although infrequently recorded presumed resident south of 

3°N in forest undergrowth and secondary growth. 60c, 66c, 71bd, 
74b, 75ab. 

431. Irania gutturalis Irania 920 
Uncommon Palaearctic migrant in NW west of 46° E on spring and 

autumn passage, Mar and Sep/Oct. 8b, lie, 18b, 19b, 20a. 

432. Luscinia luscinia Sprosser+ 922 
Rare Palaearctic migrant with 3 records in spring in Mar and one in 
autumn in Oct; twice in NW and twice along Juba. 19a, 20a, 60c, 66c. 

433. Luscinia megarhynchos Nightingale 921 
L.m. africana; L.m. hafizi. Palaearctic migrant with only 2 old 
records in NW in Apr and Oct; recently found to be locally common 
winter visitor in thickets near water in south below 2°N; one 
specimen each of hafizi and africana in NW, whilst those handled 

in south are hafizi or intermediates with africana. 2c, lie, 66d, 
67c, 68ab, 72a. 

434. Monticola rufocinerea rufocinerea Little Rock Thrush 853 
Locally common resident in wooded and rocky areas at higher altitudes 

in north above 9°30 , N. 4c. lie, 13a, 14ab, 19b, 20a. 
Breeding: 13a, 20a. 

435. Monticola saxatilis Rock Thrush* 850 
Locally common Palaearctic migrant in NW and south of 7°N in spring 

and autumn, Mar - May and Sep - Nov, with 3 in winter in Jan/Feb. 
10c, lie, 13a, 18ab, 19ab, 20ab, 36d, 53c, 54acd, 60a, 63ac, 66c, 
68bc, 69a, 71bd, 74ab. 

436. Monticola solitaria Blue Rock Thrush 851 
M.s. longirostris; M.s. solitaria. Both races, although mainly 
longirostris, are fairly common Palaearctic winter visitors Oct - Mar 



to northern mountain ravines and rocky areas above 9°30'N. 4c, 8b, 
lie, 14a, 19b, 20a. 

437. Neocossyphus rufus rufus Red- tailed Ant Thrush+ 848 
One recent record in southern forest in Aug of a wanderer or possible 
resident. 75b. 

438. Oenanthe deserti deserti Desert Wheatear* 857 
Abundant Palaearctic winter visitor to open and stony areas in North 
above 8°N and rare on SE coast; all specimens are deserti but 
atrogularis and oreophilus may occur. 2c, 4c, 8b, 9a, lOd, lie, 14a, 
18ab, 19a, 20abcd, 28b, 63cd, 69a. 

439. Oenanthe isabellina Isabelline Wheatear* 855 
Abundant Palaearctic winter visitor Sep - Apr throughout in variety 

of open country, bush and cultivations. 2c, 4c, 8b, lOcd, lie, 17c, 

18abd, 19abc, 20a, 24abc, 28b, 31cd, 34d, 35bc, 38bd, 43cd, 48a, 50b, 

51a, 53c, 57d, 58a, 60ac, 62abd, 63cd, 64c, 66c, 67d, 68abc, 69a, 
71bd, 74ab. 

440. Oenanthe lugens vauriei Mourning Wheatear 865 
Common resident in rocky areas of central northern mountains between 
47° and 49°E. 4c, 13ab, 14ab. Breeding: 13a. 

441. Oenanthe oenanthe Northern Wheatear* 854 
O.o. libanotica; O.o. oenanthe. Poorly known Palaearctic migrant 

on spring and autumn passage and over-wintering. Rare (5 records) 
in NW, but further south locally common in open country Sep - May; 
both races collected. 2c, 9b, lie, 19a, 29d, 43d, 53abc, 54c, 60a, 
61b, 63cd, 67d, 68b, 69a, 71d, 73d, 74abc. 

442. Oenanthe phillipsi Somali Wheatear 856 
Locally common widespread resident above 4°N in open stony country, 
grasslands and light bush. 6c, 8b, lie, 13ac, 14ac, 15a, 16cd, 18ab, 
19ab, 20a, 21d, 22a, 23cd, 24abc, 25a, 28b, 30bc, 31acd, 33c, 35b, 

37a, 38bcd, 41c, 43a, 46a, 48ad. Breeding: 13a, 20a, 33c, 48d. 

443. Oenanthe pileata Capped Wheatear+ 868 
African wanderer with one old record from the south in Jul. 74b. 

444. Oenanthe pleschanka pleschanka Pied Wheatear* 859 
Very common widespread Palaearctic winter visitor and passage migrant 

in spring and autumn, Sep - Apr, in variety of open country, rocky 

areas, croplands and open bush. 2c, 4c, lie, 18ab, 19ab, 20ab, 24c, 

28b, 44d, 48d, 53bc, 54acd, 58a, 61c, 62ab, 63acd, 66c, 67ad, 68bc , 
69a, 71bd, 72c, 74b. 

445. Phoenicurus ochruros phoenicuroides Black Redstart 918 
Fairly common Palaearctic winter visitor, Oct - Mar, above 9°30'N in 
woodland glades and rocky areas at higher altitudes. 4c, lie, 14a, 
19ab, 20ab. 

446. Phoenicurus phoenicurus phoenicurus Redstart+ 917 
Very rare Palaearctic passage migrant in spring, Apr /May, with 3 recent 
records in NW and 2 old records in south. 2c, 9ac, 45c, 66c. 



447. Saxicola rubetra Whinchat+ 883 
Rare Palaearctic passage migrant in NW west of 46°E, twice in Sep 

and 6 times Apr /May. 2cd, 18a, 20a. 

448. Saxicola torquata variegata Stonechat+ 882 
Palaearctic migrant with one old record of 2 birds in Sep in NW. lie. 

449. Turdus abyssinicus ludoviciae Somali Blackbird 838 
Locally very common resident in restricted range in mountain top 
juniper forest in north. 4c, lie, 13a, 14ab, 19b, 20a. 

Breeding: 13a, 19b. 

450. Turdus tephronotus Bare-eyed Thrush* 843 
Local and rather uncommon resident in south below 5°N and west of 

46° E in thickets and bushland. 45c, 53c, 59d, 60cd, 61abc, 63cd, 
68c, 69a, 73c, 74b, 75ab. Breeding: 59d, 60c. 

Family SYLVIIDAE Warblers 

451. Acrocephalus arundinaceus zarudnyi Great Reed Warbler+ 942 
Rare Palaearctic migrant with 4 records (2 old specimens and 2 recent 
sightings) on spring passage in Mar - May, 2 in north and 2 in south, 

in waterside vegetation. lie, 19a, 63a, 66c. 

452. Acrocephalus baeticatus African Reed Warbler+ 946 
A.b. cinnamomeus ; A.b. suahelicus . At least 9 records involving 3 
populations : cinnamomeus apparently as migrant in Mar - Apr in Typha 

in one southern locality; suahelicus in Tamarix in dry wadis in NW, 
presumably resident, recorded Jan and May; racially (specifically?) 
unidentified birds in NE mangroves (probably also in NW) in May 
require further study. 2cd, 6b, 9a, 68b. 

453. Acrocephalus gracilirostris leptorhyncha Lesser Swamp Warbler 957 
Recently found as abundant presumed resident in one southern locality, 
and once in another; nearest to leptorhyncha , but are very small birds 
probably requiring a new name. 68b, 72a. 

4. Acrocephalus griseldis Basra Reed Warbler+ 943 
Palaearctic migrant with one old record in south and at least 6 recent 
records in another southern wetland area, indicating locally fairly 
common over-wintering and possibly passage migrant. 68b, 74b. 

5. Acrocephalus palustris Marsh Warbler *+ 945 
Palaearctic migrant with 8 scattered records (1 old unpublished, 7 
recent) , 2 in Dec and 6 in Apr - May when numbers seen suggest a fairly 
large spring passage in NE. In bushland, mangroves and thickets. 
5c, 6b, lie, 34d, 31c, 63c. 

456. Acrocephalus schoenobaenus Sedge Warbler 947 

Palaearctic migrant with only 4 old, but many widely scattered recent 
records, once in Sep, remainder in spring Mar - Jun, indicating large 
passage in May in north. 4c, lie, 13a, 14a, 18a, 20a, 21c, 28b, 59a, 68b 

457. Acrocephalus scirpaceus fuscus Reed Warbler+ 

Palaearctic migrant with only 8 scattered records (7 recent) , over- 
wintering Dec - Apr and spring passage May. A & G's record is 




A palustris. 2c, 7a, 45c, 68b. 

458. Acrocephalus stentoreus brunnescens Clamorous Reed Warbler+ 
Common presumed resident in island mangroves in NW and possibly also 
NE coast. Requires further investigation. 2c. 

459. Apalis flavida Yellow-breasted Apalis* 979 
A.f. malensis; A.f. viridiceps . Common resident west of 48° E in 
variety of bushland, woodland and scrub; viridiceps in north south 

to 2°N, malensis to south and west of the Shebelle, but respective 
ranges unclear in south. lie, 18b, 19b, 20abc, 33b, 41c, 50c, 52b, 
53a, 54acd, 57bd, 59ad, 61ac, 63bcd, 66bd, 69a, 71b, 73cd, 75abc. 
Breeding: lie, 52b, 59a, 61a. 

460. Apalis melanocephala melanocephala Black-headed Apalis+ 975 
Locally common presumed resident with 3 old and 4 recent records in 
southern woodlands below 1°N. 71bd, 75a. 

461. Camaroptera brachyura Grey-backed Camaroptera* 1011 
C.b. abessinica; C.b. erlangeri. Locally common resident in variety 
of habitat from mountain junipers to coastal bush; abessinica north 

of 9°N and erlangeri south of 5°N and west of 46° E (but both races 
reported in south). 2c, 4c, lie, 13a, 14ab, 18abcd, 19bcd, 20a, 45c, 
63bc, 66cd, 67c, 68ab, 71bd, 72a, 75ab. Breeding: 63c. 

462. Camaroptera simplex simplex Grey Wren Warbler* 968 
Common widespread resident in bushland and thickets. 8b, 9ac, lie, 

13c, 18b, 19ab, 20abcd, 21c, 23d, 24c, 28b, 33b, 37a, 48ac, 52c, 53ab, 
54acd, 55c, 56bcd, 57bd, 59a, 60cd, 61abc, 62ab, 63abcd, 66ac, 68bc, 
69a, 72b, 73cd, 74abc, 75d. Breeding: 63a. 

463. Cisticola aridula lavendulae Desert Cisticola 1018 
Fairly common resident in open grasslands in NW west of 45° E. 

2c, 18acd, 19d. Breeding: 18a. 

464. Cisticola brachyptera reichenowi Siffling Cisticola+ 1037 
Two old records from one locality on the Juba, where presumed 
resident. 71b. 

465. Cisticola brunnescens brunnescens Pectoral Patch Cisticola+ 1020 
Three old records of presumed residents along the Ethiopian border 

in the NW. 18abd. 

466. Cisticola chiniana Rattling Cisticola+ 1024 
Two recent records of racially unidentified and presumed residents 

in south are probably referable to heterophyrys; two old records on 
the Juba (45c, 66c) assigned to C.c. bodessa may be referable to 
Cisticola bodessa Boran Cisticola. 63b, 75b. 

467. Cisticola cinereola Ashy Cisticola* 1042 
Uncommon widely scattered resident in arid open bushland and grassland. 
14c, 20cd, 23a, 24ac, 28a, 30b, 38b, 63ac, 66a, 71b, 74b. 

Breeding: 24a. 




468. Cisticola galactotes haematocephala Winding Cisticola* 1033 
Locally abundant resident in SE below 3°N in wetland vegetation and 
adjoining bushland and grasslands. 63abc, 66c, 67c, 68ab, 71bd, 

72a, 74b, 75d. Breeding: 68ab. 

469. Cisticola juncidis uropygialis Zitting Cisticola+ 1016 
Two old records of a presumed resident from a southern locality; 

old records from the NW (18bd) C. brunnescens. 63b. 

470. Cisticola nana Tiny Cisticola+ 1041 
One old record from the south. 52c. 

471. Cisticola natalensis argentea Croaking Cisticola+ 1036 
Three old records of presumed residents in one Juba area. 71b. 

472. Eremomela flavicrissalis Yellow-vented Eremomela* 1004 
Common widely distributed bushland resident south to 1°N, east of 

47°E in north, and east of 43° E in south (see E. icteropygialis) . 
13a, 14c, 23a, 33b, 34d, 35b, 40cd, 41bc, 48ad, 50c, 54a, 58a, 
63acd, 69a. Breeding: 14c, 23a, 63ac. 

473. Eremomela icteropygialis griseoflava Yellow-bellied Eremomela 1003 
Fairly common widely distributed resident north of the equator in 
bushland and open woodland mostly west of E. flavicrissalis in 

north, and in less arid areas, but widely sympatric and coexists 
with it in south. At least one griseoflava is recorded from the 
south. 8b, 9c, lie, 18ab, 19ab, 20ab, 24b, 28ab, 29a, 37a, 52bc, 
53b, 63b, 71b. Breeding: 18ab, 28b, 52b. 

474. Hippolais icterina Icterine Warbler+ 935 
Palaearctic migrant with one recent May record in NW. 2c. 

475. Hippolais languida Upcher's Warbler* 937 
Fairly common and widespread Palaearctic winter visitor in bushland 

and scrub, and locally common on passage, Aug - May, especially in 
NE, with 8 old records and many recent. 6bc, 7a, lie, 16c, 18d, 
19ac, 21c, 24b, 34d, 35b, 53b, 54a, 63c, 68b, 74a. 

476. Hippolais olivetorum Olive-tree Warbler+ 936 
Palaearctic migrant with one recent May record in NE. 6b. 

477. Hippolais pallida elaeica Olivaceous Warbler* 938 
Uncommon Palaearctic migrant on spring and autumn passage some over- 
wintering in bushland Oct - May; all west of 46° E. A population of 

a diminutive Hippolais , apparently this species, is resident in 
mangroves in NE. 5c, 6b, lOd, lie, 45c, 53c, 63d, 68ab, 69a, 74a. 

478. Parisoma boehmi somalicum Banded Parisoma 787 
Fairly common breeding resident in Acacia woodland in NW west of 

47°E. 18abd, 19abc, 20abc , 28ab. Breeding: No square data available. 

479. Phylloscopus collybita abietinus Chiffchaff+ 960 
Palaearctic winter visitor Nov - May with only 10 records, but noted as 
fairly common; all north of 7°N, mostly in mountains. 2c, 6b, lie, 13a, 
20a, 34d. 



480. Phylloscopus sibilatrix Wood Warbler*+ 961 
Palaearctic winter visitor recently found in 3 seasons in two southern 
localities in riverine Ficus canopy, Nov - Apr. 63bc. 

481. Phylloscopus trochilus acredula Willow Warbler* 959 
Palaearctic passage migrant in spring, Apr - May, all in north or west 
above 5°N (except one over-wintering in south) , suggesting that south 
and east of country is avoided; only one old record, but recently found 
as locally abundant in north coastal areas. 2acd, 4c, 5c, 9ab, lie, 
13ac, 14a, 18ab, 19a, 20ac, 30b, 40c, 63c. 

482. Phylloscopus umbrovirens Brown Woodland Warbler+ 964 
P.u. umbrovirens; P.u. williamsi . Locally common resident only 
recorded 7 times in two areas of montane Juniper forest in north; 
umbrovirens in west, williamsi in east. 4c, lie, 13a, 14a, 19b. 
Breeding: 13a. 

483. Prinia gracilis carlo Striped-backed Prinia* 1047 
Common resident in NW and coastal areas of NE to 10° N and on east 
coast between 2° - 4°N, in scrub on coast, and on maritime plain 

in NW. 2ac, 4cd, 5c, 6b, 7a, 9a, lOacd, 16d, 57d, 63cd, 64bc. 
Breeding: 63c. 

484. Prinia somalica Pale Prinia* 1046 
P.s.erlangeri; P.s. somalica . Common and widespread bushland 
resident; somalica north of 9° N and erlangeri between 1° - 8°N. 

2cd, 4c, 6c, 9ab, lOacd, lie, 14a, 19ad, 33bc, 34d, 35bc, 37a, 38bd, 
40cd, 50c, 52bc, 53a, 54ac, 57bd, 59ad, 60d, 61ac, 62a, 63bc, 66bd, 
68b, 69a. Breeding: 33c, 52c, 63c. 

485. Prinia subflava melanorhyncha Tawny-flanked Prinia+ 1045 
Uncommon presumed resident only recorded 9 times south of 1°N; in 
scrubby areas and woodland edges. 71bd, 75ab. 

486. Spiloptila rufifrons Red- fronted Warbler* 987 
S.r. rufifrons; S.r. smithii. Common resident widespread south to 
1°N, in scrub and bushland; rufifrons is confined to extreme NW border 
area, and smithii elsewhere. 2c, 4c, 6c, 8b, 9a, 10c, lie, 13a, 14ac, 
18b, 19ab, 20abcd, 23a, 24c, 28b, 33bc, 34d, 35abc, 36d, 37a, 38bd, 

40c, 41ac, 46a, 48d, 49ab, 50abc, 52b, 53bc, 54a, 56b, 57bd, 58a, 59ad, 
61a, 63cd, 69a. Breeding: 2c, lie, 20c, 52b, 56b, 57bd, 59d, 69a. 

487. Sylvia atricapilla atricapilla Blackcap* 926 
Rare Palaearctic passage migrant with only 3 old and 4 recent records 
north of 9°N, Oct - Nov, Mar and May (most). S.a. dammholzi should 
occur also. 2c, 4c, 8b, lie, 13a, 14a, 20a. 

488. Sylvia borin Garden Warbler+ 925 
Rare Palaearctic spring passage migrant with 4 recent records in May 
north above 9°N. 2c, 4c, lie, 20a. 

489. Sylvia communis icterops Whitethroat* 924 
Palaearctic migrant on passage in autumn, Sep - Oct, and spring, 

Apr - May, and twice in winter, Feb - Mar. Only 3 old records, but 



many recently in May; all north of 8°N except once in south. 2c, 4d, 
5c, 6b, 7a, 10c, lie, 14c, 18a, 19ab, 20a, 21c, 23a, 28b, 30bc, 63c. 

Sylvia curruca curruca Lesser Whitethroat+ 923 

Palaearctic migrant with one winter record in NW in Mar. lie. 

Sylvia leucomelaena sowaliensis Red Sea Warbler 928 

Fairly common presumed resident across whole of north above 8°30'N in 
acacias on maritime plain, mountains and the plateau beyond. 4c, 6c, 
7a, 8b, lie, 14a, 15a, 19b, 20ab, 21c, 30b. 

Sylvia mystacea Menetries' Warbler+ 930 

Palaearctic migrant with 7 old over-wintering records Dec - Feb in 
bush and scrub in north above 9°N and west of 49° E. 2c, 4c, 8b, 10a, 

Sylvia nana nana Desert Warbler+ 932 

Palaearctic migrant with 7 old winter records, but fairly common in 
Jan - Feb in Suaeda and thorn scrub on north coast west of 48° E. 
2c, 10a, lie, 13a. 

Sylvia nisoria nisoria Barred Warbler+ 933 

Palaearctic migrant with 2 old and 2 recent records on spring 

passage Mar - Apr; one in NW, 3 in south below 3°N. 8b, 63a, 66c, 68b. 

Sylvietta brachyura leucopsis Northern Crombec* 996 

Fairly common and widespread resident in north above 9°N and in south 
below 4°N, in variety of bushland and woodland habitats. 2c, 4c, 5c, 
10c, lie, 14a, 16c, 18b, 19a, 20a, 53abc, 55c, 56cd, 59a, 60c, 61a, 
62a, 63abc, 66acd, 67cd, 68bc, 69a, 71acd, 72a, 74bc , 75bd. 
Breeding: 4c, lie, 14a, 59a. 

Sylvietta isabellina Somali Long-billed Crombec* 999 

Bushland presumed resident in NW above 7°30'N and west of 48° E, where 
mostly uncommon; in south, west of 46° E and below 5°N, where locally 
common. 10c, 18b, 19abd, 20abd, 33b, 48d, 52bc, 53abc, 54ac, 60c, 
61ac, 63acd, 66bd, 69a, 74b. 

Sylvietta philippae Somali Short-billed Crombec 1002A 

Fairly common bushland resident in western areas of country between 
3° - 10°N. 20bc, 28a, 30a, 33b, 37a, 40c, 41abc, 48ad, 53bc, 54a, 
56b. Breeding: 56b. 

Family MUSCICAPIDAE Flycatchers 
Sub-family Muscicapinae 

Bradornis microrhynchus Grey Flycatcher* 792-794 

B.m. burae; B.m. neumanni ; B.m. pumilus. Common resident throughout 
in bushland and open woodland; pumilis in the north above 6°N, burae 
in far south below the eguator; neumanni in central areas between 
above two races. 2c, 6ac, 8bd, 9ac, lOcd, lie, 18ab, 19ab, 20abc, 
23d, 24bc, 28ab, 33b, 35b, 37a, 38d, 40cd, 41bc, 43d, 50c, 52bc, 53abc, 
54ac, 57bd, 58a, 59d, 60c, 61a, 62b, 63cd, 66b, 68b, 69a, 71a, 72b, 
73d, 74b. Breeding: lie, 18a, 20b, 52b. 



499. Bradornis pallidus Pale Flycatcher* 792-794 
B.p. duyerali; B.p. erlangeri; B.p. subalaris. Fairly common 
resident in bushland and woodland south of c. 7°N; duyerali in 
central areas south to Shebelle; erlangeri along Juba and Shebelle; 
subalaris below the equator. Racial distribution requires further 
clarification. 34d, 41a, 48d, 49bc, 60c, 62d, 63abc, 66ac, 68bc, 

71bd, 74c, 75abcd. Breeding: 63a, 74c, 75c. 

500. Ficedula albicollis semitorquata Collared Flycatcher+ 779-780 
Palaearctic migrant with 2 old records in NW in Aug - Sep. 
Overlooked by A & G. lie. 

501. Melaenornis pammelaina Southern Black Flycatcher+ 799 
Presumed resident with 2 old records from Juba forests in Feb - Mar. 

502. Muscicapa caerulescens cinereola Ashy Flycatcher 785 
Fairly common presumed resident in southern forests below 1°30'N. 

66cd, 71bd, 75b. 

503. Muscicapa gambagae Gambaga Flycatcher+ 778 
Only known from Mt. Wagar forest in NW where presumably resident and 
apparently fairly common. lie. 

504. Muscicapa striata neumanni Spotted Flycatcher* 778 
Common Palaearctic migrant with only 6 old records but many recent, 

on passage Sep - Oct (8 records) and, especially in north, Apr - May 
(30+ records) ; a few over-winter Dec - Mar south of 3°N. 2cd, 5c, 
6b, 7a, 9abc, 10c, lie, 13a, 16c, 18ab, 19ab, 20ab, 24c, 28b, 30c, 
35b, 40c, 53bc, 63abc, 68b, 71d. 

Sub-family Platysteirinae 

505. Batis minor minor Black-headed Batis* 820 
Fairly common presumed resident in bushland and open woodland south 

of 3°N. 60c, 63bc, 66ac, 68b, 71bd, 74b. 

506. Batis orientalis orientalis Grey-headed Batis* 816 
Common resident in bushland and open woodland in NW above 8°N and 

west of 49°E, and in south below 3°N. 4c, 8b, 9c, lie, 14ab, 18abc, 
19ab, 20ab, 28b, 30b, 62b, 63c, 68b, 71bd, 75c. Breeding: 9c, 18ac. 

507. Batis perkeo Pygmy Batis* 819 
Common bushland presumed resident south of 9°N and west of 48° E, 
south to equator. 28b, 33b, 50c, 52c, 53a, 54ac, 59d, 61a, 63cd, 71a. 

508. Platysteira peltata peltata Black-throated Wattle-eye 82 
Fairly common presumed resident in Juba forests south of 3 d N. 

60c, 66acd, 71bd. 

Sub- family Monachinae 

509. Erythrocercus holochlorus Little Yellow Flycatcher* 80 
Uncommon presumed resident in southern forests with 4 old records 

on Juba and 3 recent in far south. 66c, 71bd, 75a. 


Terpsiphone viridis ferreti Paradise Flycatcher* 832 

Widely distributed presumed resident, but unrecorded 5 P - 9°N; in 
forest, woodland and wadi trees, but nowhere common. 4c, lie, 13a, 
14a, 18a, 19b, 20a, 45c, 52c, 59d, 60c, 63bc, 66acd, 67c, 68ab, 70b, 
71abd, 72a, 73d, 74b, 75abc. 

Trochocercus cyanomelas bivittatus Crested Flycatcher+ 828 

Apparently uncommon presumed resident in forests of Juba and far 
south; only recorded 8 times (once recently) . 71bd, 75b. 

Family MOTACILLIDAE Wagtails, Pipits, Longclaws 

Anthus campestris Tawny Pipit* 702 

Fairly common Palaearctic migrant over-wintering regularly south to 
9°N, and occasionally to 1°N, in dry grassy areas; a May male in 
breeding condition in NW (21c). 2c, 4c, 8b, 9a, lie, 14b, 18ab, 
19b, 20a, 21c, 44d, 66c, 69a. 

Anthus cervinus Red- throated Pipit* 713 

Very common Palaearctic migrant on spring passage Mar - May (once 
Feb) in north; small numbers scattered in south between l p - 6°N, 
over-wintering Dec - Mar and on spring passage; in any freshwater 
wetlands. 7a, 10a, lie, 20a, 28b, 41c, 63c, 68b. 

Anthus leucophrys saphiroi Plain-backed Pipit 704 

Common but very local resident in open grassland with light bush and 
cultivation in NW near Ethiopian border. 18abd, 19c. Breeding: 18ab. 

Anthus melindae Malindi Pipit* 709 

A.m. melindae; A.m. pallidus. A coastal population has been separated 
as pallidus (63d) . Common resident in SE below 4°N in open country, 
dunes, cultivations and wetland edges. 56c, 63abcd, 64a, 66c, 68b, 
71bd, 72a, 74bc, 75d. Breeding: 64a. 

Anthus novaeseelandiae cinnamomeus Richard's Pipit* 706 

Common resident in north above 7°N and in a coastal belt in SE below 
3°N, in open country, grasslands and light bush. 4c, lie, 13a, 14a, 
18a, 19ab, 20acd, 21cd, 23a, 24b, 28b, 31a, 33d, 35b, 63c, 64ab, 68abc, 
74b. Breeding: 13a, 18a, 20a, 21c, 28b. 

Anthus similis nivescens Long-billed Pipit* 703 

Common resident in mountains in north in broken country, usually among 
or near trees, but occasionally south to 8°N; once on coast in far 
south, where possibly uncommon resident on dunes. 4c, lie, 13a, 14ab, 
18ab, 19ab, 20a, 30b, 69a, 74b. Breeding: 19b. 

Anthus trivialis trivialis Tree Pipit 708 

Fairly common Palaearctic migrant on spring (Mar - May) and autumn 
(Aug - Oct) passage in north above 7°N; roughly similar numbers both 
seasons. 3c, lie, 19ab, 20a, 35b. 

Macronyx aurantiigula Pangani Longclaw* 720 

Uncommon presumed resident in open bushland in coastal belt in SE 
between !• - 3°N. 62d, 63abc, 68bc, 71bd, 74b. 



520. Macronyx croceus tertius Yellow-throated Longclaw+ 716 
One old record from SE coast. 68c. 

521. Motacilla aguimp vidua African Pied Wagtail 691 
Uncommon resident along rivers in south below 2°30'N. 60c, 66a, 

68c, 71bd. Breeding: 66a. 

522. Motacilla alba alba White Wagtail* 690 
Fairly common Palaearctic migrant, scattered throughout, over-wintering 
and on passage Oct - Mar, around wetlands, in towns and villages. 

7c, 8b, 10c, lie, 18b, 19ab, 20a, 44d, 45c, 63bc, 68b, 69a, 71d. 

523. Motacilla cinerea cinerea Grey Wagtail* 694 
Uncommon Palaearctic migrant over-wintering and on passage Sep - Mar 

in NW west of 46°E and in south between 1° - 5°N, in any wet place, 
lie, 18b, 19b, 20a, 48a, 60ac, 63cd, 68b. 

524. Motacilla flava Yellow Wagtail* 695-699 
M.f. beema; M.f. feldegg; M.f . flava; M.f. lutea; M.f. thunbergi. 
Locally abundant Palaearctic migrant throughout over-wintering and 

on passage Sep - May in wetlands and elsewhere often with grazing 
animals; several beema on east coast Mar - Apr; feldegg, once in 
winter, large spring passage in north Mar - Apr, but only once in 
south; flava, in north once in winter and very few Mar - Apr; lutea, 
probably most numerous race over-wintering, and common in south Mar - 
Apr (once in north, recorded as flavissima) ; thunbergi, in winter and 
on late spring passage Apr - May. Racial composition of winter flocks 
not understood. 2c, 4c, 7a, 9a, lOac, lie, 13a, 14a, 18ab, 20ac, 21c, 
28b, 35b, 40cd, 41c, 43c, 45c, 48a, 51a, 62b, 63acd, 64a, 66d, 67cd, 
68abc, 69a, 71bd, 72ac, 74c, 75a. 

525. Tmetothylacus tenellus Golden Pipit* 715 
Common resident throughout the west and south, west of 47° E, in 
bushland, grassland and cultivation; apparent movements not understood. 
2cd, lOd, lie, 18a, 20a, 21cd, 27a, 28abc, 36d, 37c, 40c, 41bc, 46a, 
48acd, 49ab, 53c, 54ad, 56bcd, 59ad, 60c, 61ab, 62abd, 63abc, 66c, 67d, 
68abc, 69a, 71abd, 72ab, 73d, 74abc , 75abd. Breeding: 63c. 

Family MALACONOTIDAE Bush Shrikes 

526. Dryoscopus cubla af finis Black-backed Puff back* 1129 
Fairly common presumed resident in woodlands and forest along rivers 
and in the far south below 3°N, 60c, 63bcd, 66acd, 68b, 71bd, 74b, 

527. Dryoscopus gambensis erythreae Northern Puffback+ 1131 
One old record of 2 specimens in NW. 18b. 

528. Dryoscopus pringlii Pringle's Puffback* 1130 
Uncommon presumed resident very local in bushland and woodland 

south of 3°N, but recently at 7° N suggesting larger range. 
33d, 59ad, 61a, 63d, 69a, 74b. 


529. Laniarius ferrugineus Tropical Boubou* 1125 

L.f. aethiopicus; L.f. erlangeri; L.f. sublacteus. Common resident 
in thickets, bushland and range of woodland habitats in NW west of 
46° E and in south below 3°N; aethiopicus at higher altitude in NW, 
erlangeri in southern lowlands, and sublacteus in far south. lie, 18a, 
19b, 20a, 63bc, 66cd, 67cd, 68b, 71bd, 72a, 75ab. Breeding: 18a, 20a. 

530. Laniarius funebris Slate-coloured Boubou* 1121 
Fairly common presumed resident in bushlands and thickets in NW 
eastwards to 46° E and south to 9°N; in south scattered below 5°N 
apparently ecologically segregated from rather similar black 

L. ferrugineus erlangeri. 8bd, 9c, lie, 18a, 19ab, 20abc, 45c, 
53c, 54d, 55c, 59d, 60c, 61ab, 62a, 63c, 66d, 71d, 73d, 75a. 

531. Laniarius ruficeps Red-naped Bush Shrike* 1126 
L.r. kismayensis; L.r. ruficeps; L.r. rufinuchalis . Locally common 
resident patchily distributed in denser bushland and woodland; 
kismayensis in coastal SE below 3°N (and probably this race north to 
5°N and possibly further) ; ruficeps is confined to restricted area in 
NW; rufinuchalis in central areas from 8°N south to 1°N and west of 
kismayensis. 20abc, 34d, 35b, 50abc, 54d, 57bd, 58a, 59d, 61a, 63cd, 
66c, 68c, 69a, 73c, 74b, 75a. Breeding: 20ab. 

532. Malaconotus blanchoti Grey-headed Bush Shrike* 1144 
M.b. approximans; M.b. catharoxanthus. Locally common resident, 

but much overlooked, in bushland and ^woodland, in NW south to 9°N 
and east to 46° E (catharoxanthus) , and south of 5°N (approximans) . 
lie, 18ab, 19ab, 20a, 45c, 55c, 56d, 57bd, 60c, 61abc, 62a, 63bcd, 
66bcd, 67c, 68a, 69a, 71abd, 72a, 74bc, 75ab. Breeding: 20a. 

533. Malaconotus quadricolor nigricauda Four-coloured Bush Shrike+ 1142 
Three recent records of presumed residents in Sep in one area of far 
southern woodland. 75a. 

534. Malaconotus sulfureopectus similis Sulphur-breasted Bush Shrike* 1138 
Fairly common presumed resident in restricted range in eastern 

sector of south below 3°N; in bushland, thickets and woodland edges. 
63bc, 66c, 71abd, 72a, 75ac. 

535. Nilaus afer minor Brubru* 1098 
Widely distributed presumed resident throughout, except unrecorded 

in eastern central and western parts of southern areas; in bushland 
and woodland. 2c, 8d, 9c, lOd, lie, 13c, 14c, 15a, 18ab, 19ab, 
20abcd, 23d, 24ab, 28ab, 33b, 37a, 41bc, 45d, 46a, 48d, 52b, 53abc, 
54ac, 57bd, 58a, 59a, 60c, 61ac, 63bcd, 69a, 74ab, 75a. 

536. Rhodophoneus cruentus hilgerti Rosy-patched Shrike* 1147 
Fairly common widely distributed resident south to 2°N in scrub and 
bushland. 2c, 8b, 9a, 10c, lie, 13ac, 14c, 18ab, 19abd, 20abc, 23a, 
24abc, 28ab, 33c, 35b, 36d, 37a, 38d, 41abc, 44d, 45c, 48d, 49b, 53b, 
54d, 56d, 60c, 61ab, 62a, 63bc. Breeding: 10c, lie, 18a, 19abd. 



537. Tchagra jamesi jamesi Three-streaked Tchagra* 1135 
Locally common and widely distributed bushland resident, but unrecorded 
in far NE , and eastern sector of central and western sector of southern 
areas. lie, 19ab, 20c, 24c, 27a, 28a, 33b, 37a, 41b, 48d, 52c, 53ab, 
54ac, 57bd, 60c, 63ac, 69a, 71abd, 72ab, 74abc, 75abd. Breeding: 20c. 

538. Tchagra senegala Black-headed Tchagra* 1133 
T.s. habessinica; T.s. senegala. Locally distributed rather uncommon 
resident in NW, central areas of northern mountains, and along rivers 
and in woodlands of south below 3°N, in wide range of habitat- bushland, 
thickets, scrub, woodland and forest edge; habessinica in NW and north, 
senegala elsewhere. 4c, 8b, 13a, 14ab, 60c, 63bc, 66acd, 67c, 68abc, 
71bd, 72a, 74b, 75b. Breeding: 13a, 66c. 

Family LANIIDAE Shrikes 

539. Lanius cabanisi Long- tailed Fiscal* 1108 
Common resident south of 3°N in cultivation and open country with 
scattered trees. 60c, 62bd, 63abc, 67cd, 68abc, 71bd, 72a, 73d, 74b, 
75abd. Breeding: 68b, 7 Id. 

540. Lanius collurio Red-backed Shrike* 1112 
Locally abundant Palaearctic migrant on passage with a few over- 
wintering in south below 3°N in Dec - Mar; in autumn almost all are 

in south, Aug - Nov; whereas the immensely greater spring passage is 
almost all in the north in Apr - May. 2acd, 4c, lOacd, lie, 14ac, 
18ab, 19ab, 20ac, 21cd, 28ab, 37a, 40d, 48ad, 63abcd, 66c, 68b, 69a 

541. Lanius dorsalis Taita Fiscal* 1107 
Fairly common widespread presumed resident of bushland in south and 
west below 7°N and west of c. 47°E; replaced by L. somalicus (<7-v.) 

in sparser cover. 36d, 40c, 41c, 45c, 46a, 48acd, 52c, 53abc, 54acd, 
56bcd, 59ad, 60ac, 61ab, 62ab, 63abcd, 66ac , 67ad, 68b, 69a, 71d, 72a, 
73d, 74abc, 75bd. 

542. Lanius excubitor Grey Shrike 1100 
L.e. aucheri; L.e. pallidirostris . One old record of a party of 
Palaearctic pallidirostris on north coast in Jan; aucheri is rather 
uncommon, apparently non-breeding visitor Nov - Jun, possibly from 

Red Sea population, west of 49° E in coastal north. 2c, 4c, 10a, lie. 

543. Lanius isabellinus Red-tailed Shrike* 1114 
L.i. phoenicuroides; L.i. speculigerus . Fairly common Palaearctic 
migrant mostly in north above 9°N, and scattered in south between 

L° - 6°N; present Sep - May, with both phoenicuroides and speculigerus 
over-wintering throughout range; periods of passage unclear; records 
of first race about twice as numerous. 2c, 4c, 6bc , 8b, 10c, lie, 13a, 
18a, 19ab, 20a, 24c, 43d, 60c, 61b, 63ac, 66c, 69a. 

544. Lanius minor Lesser Grey Shrike 1103 
Locally abundant Palaearctic migrant on passage, all in spring 

Mar - May except once in Sep. Great majority in north above 8°N; 
rather few (7 per cent records) in southern area bordered by 6°N, 47° E; 
1°N, 42°E. 2cd, 4c, 9ab, lOac, lie, 14c, 15a, 18ab, 19ab, 20acd, 28a, 



40c, 41bc, 48ad, 56b, 63ac, 66c. 

545. Lanius nubicus Nubian Shrike+ 1109 
Palaearctic migrant with 3 old and 1 recent records, Oct and Feb - Apr, 
presumably over-wintering in NW west of 46° E. 2c, 19a, 20b. 

546. Lanius senator niloticus Woodchat Shrike+ 1115 
Palaearctic migrant with 2 old records in NW (one in Nov) . 19a. 

547. Lanius sowalicus Somali Fiscal* 1106 
Common and widespread resident of bushland south to 5°N then south 

to 1°N in narrow coastal strip, thus largely allopatric with 
L. dorsalis which is ecologically segregated in denser bush. 2c, 4cd, 
6bc, 7a, 8b, 9ab, lOacd, lie, 13ac, 14ac, 15b, 16ad, 18ab, 19abc, 
20abcd, 21cd, 22a, 23ac, 24abc, 25a, 28ab, 29ad, 30c, 31acd, 33cd, 34d, 
35abc, 36d, 37ac, 38bcd, 41a, 43ac, 50abc, 51a, 57bd, 58a, 63cd, 64abc, 
68b, 69a. Breeding: 2c, 10a, lie, 15b, 18a, 19bc, 20a, 29a, 41a, 50b, 
63d, 69a. 

Family PRIONOPIDAE Helmet Shrikes 

548. Eurocephalus rueppelli White-crowned Shrike* 1097 
Common widespread resident in NW to 46° E and south of 8°N in bushland 
and open woodland. 9a, 10c, lie, 18abc, 19ab, 20ab, 33d, 34a, 36d, 
38d, 41bc, 43d, 45c, 48abcd, 49b, 50ab, 52c, 53bc, 54acd, 55c, 56bcd, 
57d, 58a, 60acd, 61abc, 62abd, 63abc, 66abcd, 67acd, 68abc, 69a, 71abd, 
72ab, 73d, 74abc, 75abd, Breeding: 18ac, 19a, 20a, 41b, 63a. 

549. Prionops plumata vinaceigularis Helmet Shrike* 1090 
Locally distributed rather uncommon resident in NW to 46° E and south 

of 5°N, in bushland, woodland and forest. lie, 18b, 19ac, 20bcd, 
45cd, 53b, 55c, 56c, 59d, 60cd, 61ab, 62a, 63c, 66acd, 70b, 71bd, 73d, 
75a. Breeding: 55c, 62a. 

550. Prionops retzii graculina Retz's Helmet Shrike 1095 
Fairly common, presumed resident, in forests south of 1°30'N. 

66c, 71bd, 74b, 75ab. 

551. Prionops scopifrons kirki Chestnut- fronted Helmet Shrike+ 1096 
Common, presumed resident, with 6 recent records in forests in far 
south below 1°S. 75ab. 

Family STURNIDAE Starlings, Oxpeckers 
Sub-family Sturnirae 

552. Cinnyricinclus leucogaster arabicus Violet-backed Star 1184 
Locally abundant breeding visitor in NW, but only recorded Apr, May 

and Sep, east to 46°E and south to 9°30'N, in open woodland and P 
groves. 8bd, 9a, lie, 18b, 19ab, 20a. Breedn 

553. Cosmopsarus regius Golden-breasted Starl 
Common resident above ^"N in NW east I 

extends across to east coast at c . 8°N, south through western cr: 
area, and widely distributed below V»N, in ta] ' md. lie, 18b, 
19abd, 20abr d Hab, 29a, 30c, ^4a, 36d, 37ac, 40cd, 



45cd, 48acd, 49b, 52b, 53abc, 54acd, 56bc, 60acd, 61abc, 62b, 63abc, 
66abcd, 71abd, 72b, 73d, 74abc, 75ab. Breeding: 19b, 28a, 63a. 

554. Creatophora cinerea Wattled Starling* 1182 
Locally abundant, especially in south, and widespread except 
unrecorded in east central area; no certain breeding record; in 
bushland, grassland, woodland, and cultivation. 2c, 6b, 9c, 10c, 

lie, 16c, 18ab, 19ad, 20ad, 28b, 29a, 40c, 41c, 45c, 48a, 54d, 56d, 
60a, 61ab, 62abd, 63abcd, 67cd, 68abc, 69a, 71bd, 72a, 73d, 74abc, 

555. Lamprotornis chalybaeus cyaniventris Blue-eared Glossy Starling 1188 
Locally fairly common resident in NW to 46° E and 9° 30' N; once in 

NE and on western border in south; in bushland, open woodland and 
towns. 8b, 9c, lie, 18ab, 19ab, 20ab, 24c, 45c. Breeding: 20a. 

556. Lamprotornis corruscus corruscus Black-breasted Glossy Starling 1194 
Common presumed resident in forest and woodland of Juba valley and 

far south, 45c, 60c, 66c, 71bd, 74b, 75ab. 

557. Lamprotornis purpuropterus purpuropterus Ruppell's long-tailed 

Glossy. Starling* 1196 
Two old records in NW; locally common, presumed resident, in south 
below 5 N in less arid bushland and open woodland. 18b, 48a, 56d, 
60c, 63abc, 66abcd, 67acd, 68b, 71bd, 72a, 73d, 74bc, 75ab. 

558. Onychognathus blythii Somali Chestnut-winged Starling 1204 
Abundant widespread resident in north to just below 8°N at all 
altitudes, in towns and rocky areas. 4c, 5c, 6abc, 7ac, 8d, 10c, 

lie, 13a, 14ab, 15a, 16c, 17c, 19b, 20a, 29c, 30bc, 35b. 
Breeding: 20a. 

559. Onychognathus salvadorii Bristle-crowned Starling 1206 
Locally common resident in extreme NW and in central southern area 
bounded by 4°30'N, 46°E; 2°30'N, 43°30'E in towns, rocky hills and 
river banks. 18ab, 48d, 54d, 55c, 56b, 62a. Breeding: 18a. 

560. Speculipastor bicolor Magpie Starling* 1187 
Widespread throughout and often abundant, except along north coast, 
breeding in NW and on SW border; undergoes poorly known nomadic 
movements; in scrub, bushland, and riverine and open woodland. 

14c, 19ad, 20abcd, 21cd, 22a, 23c, 27ab, 28ab, 29a, 30c, 33bcd, 35bc, 
36d, 37ac, 38b, 40cd, 41abc, 43cd, 48a, 51a, 52b, 53b, 54acd, 60a, 
61b, 62d, 63ac, 67d, 68abc, 69a, 71bd, 72ab, 73d, 74abc, 75abd. 
Breeding: 20b, 27ab, 28a, 52b. 

561. Spreo albicapillus albicapillus White-crowned Starling 1212 
Very common widespread resident in north above 6°N extending southwards 
in west to c. 4"N, in bushland and open areas with scattered trees. 

2c, 6c, 8b, 9a, lOacd, lie, 13ac, 14ac, 15ab, 16ac, 18ab, 19abd, 
20abcd, 21cd, 22a, 23abcd, 24abc, 28ab, 29acd, 30abc, 31ac, 33bcd, 
34ad, 35bc, 36d, 37ac, 40cd, 41abc, 48acd, 53b, 54a, Breeding: 13c, 
20a, 22a, 30c. 



562. Spreo fischeri Fischer's Starling* 1211 
Very common widespread resident in bushland south of 5°N. 45c, 48ac, 
52b, 53bc, 54d, 55c, 56bcd, 60cd, 61abc, 62abd, 63abc, 66ad, 67a, 
68abc, 69a, 70b, 71ad, 72b, 73d, 74b, 75a. Breeding: 45c, 52b, 63a. 

563. Spreo shelleyi Shelley's Starling 1215 
Very common intra-tropical migrant, Apr - Sep, breeding in north 

south of the maritime plain and above 8°N; a few scattered records 
in the south below 4°N; in bushland. lie, 13a, 14c, 19abd, 20abc, 
21c, 23abcd, 24b, 28c, 53c, 61ab, 73d. Breeding: 20a. 

564. Spreo superbus Superb Starling* 1216 
Abundant widespread resident throughout, except apparently in far 

NE and parts of eastern coastal areas j in bushland, open woodlands, 
scrub, towns and villages. 2c, 9ac, lOacd. lie, 13c, 18ab, 19ab, 
20abcd, 21cd, 23c, 24abc, 28ab, 29a, 33cd, 35a, 36d, 37a, 40cd, 41bc, 
45c, 48acd, 50b, 53bc, 54acd, 55c, 56bcd, 57bd, 58a, 59a, 60cd, 61abc, 
62abd, 63abc, 66abd, 67cd, 68abc, 69a, 71abd, 72b, 73d, 74ab, 75ab. 
Breeding: lie, 18ab, 48a, 63c. 

565. Sturnus vulgaris Eurasian Starling+ 1181 
Vagrant Palaearctic migrant with one recent Dec sight record in 

south. 63c. 

Sub- family Buphaginae 

566. Buphagus erythrorhynchus Red-billed Oxpecker* 1218 
Common widespread resident throughout except apparently in NE and 
parts of eastern coastal areas; in towns, villages, bushland, open 
woodland and any country where a few trees and animals exist. 2c, 

8d, 9a, lOad, lie, 14b, 18ab, 19ab, 20b, 28ab, 29a, 33c, 34d, 37c, 
38d, 40c, 41ac, 45c, 46d, 47c, 53b, 54ad, 55c, 56bcd, 57d, 60ac, 
61ac, 62abd, 63abcd, 66ad, 68abcd, 69a, 70b, 71abd, 72a, 73d, 74abc, 
75a. Breeding: lOd, lie, 20b, 63c. 

Family NECTARINIIDAE Sunbirds 

567. Anthreptes collaris elachior Collared Sunbird* 1271 
Locally very common resident south of c. 4°N in thickets and woodlands 
of the far south and along southern rivers. 45c, 60c, 63bc, 66acd, 
67c, 71bd, 72a, 75abc. Breeding: 63c. 

568. Anthreptes orientalis Eastern Violet-backed Sunbird* 1274 
Fairly common presumed resident widespread south of 7°N and locally 

in NW west of 46°E, in bushland and open woodland. 2c, 8b, lOd, lie, 
18b, 19ab, 20a, 37a, 38c, 43ad, 45d, 48d, 49c, 50c, 52b, 53abc, 54ac, 
56c, 58a, 59d, 60acd, 61ab, 62b, 63abcd, 66abcd, 67ad, 68bc, 69a, 
71abd, 72ab, 74bc, 75d. 

569. Anthreptes platurus Pygmy Sunbird 1236 
Common, locally abundant non-breeding icross whole of north 

to east coast south to 9°N in bushland and op< Sc« 

6abc, 7a, 8b, 9a, lOacd, lie, 14b, 15a, 16ac, 19abc, 20ab, . 



570. Nectarinia amethystina kirkii Amethyst Sunbird 1261 
Uncommon presumed resident only known from wooded areas in Juba 
valley. 45c, 60c, 66c, 71bd. 

571. Nectarinia bifasciata Little Purple-banded Sunbird* 1241-42 
N.b. microrhyncha ; N.b. tsavoensis. Fairly common presumed resident 
west of 46°E in south in bushland and wooded country; distribution 

of the two races not clearly understood. 45c, 59d, 60c, 61a, 63c, 
66abc, 68bc, 70d, 71bd, 73d. 

572. Nectarinia habessinica Shining Sunbird 1240 
N.h. altera; N.h. turkanae. Very common widespread resident in 

north above 7°N (altera) and 3 old records (turkanae) on upper Juba, 
in wide variety of bushed (often sparse) and wooded habitat. 2c, 4cd, 
5c, 6ac, 8b, lOac, lie, 13ac, 14a, 15a, 16c, 18ab, 19abc, 20abc, 24c, 
30bc, 31d, 35b, 44d, 45c, 53b. Breeding: lie, 19ab. 

573. Nectarinia hunter i Hunter's Sunbird* 1264 
Fairly common widespread resident throughout except in NE and extreme 
west, in bushland and open woodlands. lie, 18b, 19ad, 20bc, 21c, 27a, 
28bc, 29c, 30c, 33d, 37a, 38d, 40cd, 41c, 43d, 45cd, 46a, 48acd, 49abc, 
52bc, 53abc, 54d, 58a, 59ad, 60ac, 61a, 63cd, 66abcd, 67c, 68c, 69a, 
71bd, 72a, 74ab, 75d. Breeding: 19d, 30c. 

574. Nectarinia mariquensis osiris Marigua Sunbird 1245 
Common presumed resident in NW west of 47° E and north of 8°N in 
bushland and open woodlands. 9c, lie, 18ab, 19ab, 20abc, 28c. 

575. Nectarinia nectar inioides erlangeri Smaller Black-bellied Sunbird+ 1234 
Uncommon resident with 7 old records in riverine vegetation along 

upper Juba. 45cd, 60c, 66a. Breeding: 45c. 

576. Nectarinia olivacea changamwensis Olive Sunbird+ 1269 
Uncommon presumed resident with 5 old and 5 recent records in riverine 
woodland along lower Juba. 66cd, 71b. 

577. Nectarinia pembae chalcomelas Violet-breasted Sunbird* 1243 
Locally fairly common resident in south below 3°N in wide range of 
usually less arid habitat with bushes, or trees. 62bd, 63abc, 66bd, 
67cd, 68abc, 70d, 71abd, 72ab, 74b, 75abc. Breeding: 66b, 68b. 

578. Nectarinia venusta albiventris Variable Sunbird* 1251 
Common resident almost ubiguitous, in wide variety of habitat but 
particularly bushland. 4c, 6bc, 8b, lOcd, lie, 13a, 14ab, 17c, 18bd, 
19ab, 20abc, 21c, 24c, 28a, 29c, 30b, 31ac, 33bcd, 34d, 35abc, 36d, 
37a, 38d, 40cd, 41abc, 45c, 48acd, 49ab, 50b, 51a, 53abc, 54acd, 56bc, 
58a, 59ad, 60ac, 62bd, 63acd, 66abcd, 68abcd, 69a, 70d, 71d, 73d, 
74abc, 75bd. Breeding: 69a. 

579. Nectarinia veroxii fischeri Mouse-coloured Sunbird*+ 1265 
Apparently rare presumed resident with one old and 4 recent records, 
Sep, Oct, Dec, Feb, in woodlands of coastal strip south of 2° 30' N. 

63c, 71b, 75c. 


580- 5S8 

Family ZOSTEROPIDAE White-eye 

580. Zosterops abyssinica Abyssinian White-eye* 1219 & 1226 
Z.a. jubaensis; Z.a. socotrana . Presumed resident, common in NW 

east of 49° E and north of 9°30'N {socotrana) , and again in scattered 
localities between 2° - 4°N and in far south (jubaensis) in montane 
and lowland woodlands, bushland and thickets 4c, lie, 13a, 14ab, 
18ab, 19ab, 20a, 52c, 59ad, 60c, 63bc, 74b, 75ac. 

Family PLOCEIDAE Weavers, etc. 
Sub-family Ploceinae 

581. Amblyospiza albifrons Grosbeak Weaver* 1358 
A. a. melanota; A. a. unicolor . Locally fairly common resident breeding 
in wetlands, but wanders elsewhere, along lower reaches of Shebelle 

and Juba valleys below 3°N; melanota and unicolor apparently intergrade 
in Somalia. 62d, 63abc, 67c, 68ab, 71bd, 72a. Breeding: 68b, 71d. 

582. Anaplectes melanotis Red-headed Weaver 1359 
A.m. jubaensis; A.m. leuconctus . Uncommon resident in woodlands of 

NW west of 46° E and above 9°N (leuconotus) and along Juba and southern 
forests below 3°N (jubaensis) . 8d, lie, 18ab, 19bc, 20a, 60c, 66c, 
71d, 73d, 75ab. Breeding: 8d. 

583. Euplectes axillaris zanzibaricus Fan- tailed Widowbird* 1370 
Fairly common where very locally distributed in Juba and Shebelle 
wetlands south of 3°N, in marshes and irrigated rice. 60c, 63abc, 
68ab, 71bd. Breeding: 63c. 

584. Euplectes diadematus Fire-fronted Bishop* 1368 
Locally abundant resident south of 3°N (once upper Shebelle) , usually 

in wet grassy areas, but wanders widely. 48a, 61a, 62ad, 63abc, 66d, 
68abc, 69a, 71d, 72ab, 74b, 75ab. Breeding: 63c. 

585. Euplectes franciscanus pusillus Northern Red Bishop* 1363 
Uncommon resident in NW above 9°N and west of 45° E but locally 
abundant in south below 5°N in cultivation and grasslands, usually 

near water. E. nigroventris may occur in the far south. 2c, lOac, 
18ab, 19a, 45c, 48a, 62bd, 63abc, 68ab, 71b, 74abc. Breeding: 10a, 
18a, 62b, 6 

586. Ploceus bicolor Dark-backed Weaver 13 35 
Common presumed resident below 2*30' N in forests of Juba and far 
south. 60c, 66acd, 71bd, 75ab. 

587. PL Golden Palm Weav. 

Locally abundant resident below 3'N in valleys of Shebelle and Juba, 
and in far south, closely associated w lers 

•specially into cultivations. 62d, 6Jabc, 66c, 67d, 68abc, 

71b v Sa. Breeding: 62d, 63ac, 68ab, 71d. 

588. riocour us paroptus Black-headed Weaver* 

Locally abundant resident below 5"N in valleys of Shebelle and Juba, 
and in far south, closely associated with wet areas. lers 
widely, espo roplands. 48a, 56b, 60c, 62d, 63abc, 66cd, 



68abc, 71bd, 72a, 74b, 75abd. Breeding: 56b, 62d, 63ac, 68abc, 71d. 

589. Ploceus dichrocephalus Juba Weaver* 1325 
Rather uncommon presumed resident largely confined to river edges 

of Juba and Shebelle below 5°N. 45c, 60c, 63bc, 66ac, 71bd. 

590. Ploceus galbula Rlippell's Weaver 1329 
Common resident in north above 8°N (once to 6°N) in bushland and 

range of wooded habitat within reach of water. 2c, 4cd, 5c, 8b, 
9a, lOac, lie, 13a, 14ab, 15a, 16c, 18ab, 19ab, 20a, 28c, 37a. 
Breeding: 2c, 4c, 5c, 8b, 9a, 10a, lie, 14a, 16c, 19ab, 20a. 

591. Ploceus intermedius intermedius Masked Weaver* 1319 
Locally very common resident in south below 5°N, but rare in NW to 

47° E and 8°N, patchily distributed in bushland and open woodland 
and not necessarily associated with water. 8b, lOd, 18a, 19a, 28b, 
48a, 53bc, 56cd, 60c, 61a, 62b, 63abc, 66c, 68abc, 71d, 72ab, 73cd, 
74abc, 75abd. Breeding: 19a, 28b, 62b, 63abc, 68abc, 74c. 

592. Ploceus nigricollis melanoxanthus Black-necked Weaver* 1336 
Rather uncommon resident in south in coastal strip from 4°N, in 
bushland, thickets and wooded areas. 58a, 63abc, 68abc, '69a, 70d, 
71ab, 74b, 75a. Breeding: 58a, 63c, 75a. 

593. Ploceus rubiginosus rubiginosus Chestnut Weaver* 1327 
Locally fairly common resident in NW west of 44°30'E and very common 
but local resident south of 4°N in the Juba and Shebelle valleys, in 
bushland and wooded areas close to water. 9c, 18ab, 19a, 56bc, 60c, 
63abc, 68bc, 71d. Breeding: 19a, 56b, 63a, 68c. 

594. Ploceus spekei Speke's Weaver 1314 
Locally very common but patchily distributed in north above 8°30'N 

and in a coastal area between 3° - 5°N, in bushland and groups of 
trees near water. 14b, 16c, 18ad, 19c, 20a, 21c, 30b, 50c, 57d. 
Breeding: 18a, 20a, 21c, 30b. 

595. Ploceus velatus uluensis Vitelline Masked Weaver* 1321 
Rather uncommon locally distributed resident in NW to 46°30'E and 

in Juba and Shebelle Valleys below 4°N, in grassland with bushes 
and/or trees; apparently wanders widely. lie, 19a, 20abc, 28c, 45c, 
56b, 60c, 63bcd, 68b, 69a, 71d, 72ab, 74b. Breeding: 56b, 63c. 

596. Quelea erythrops Red-headed Quelea+ 1361 
One recent record in far south in Aug. 75b. 

597. Quelea quelea Red-billed Quelea* 1360 
Q.q. aethiopica ; Q.q. intermedia . Abundant non-breeding visitor 

to NW to 45°30'E {aethiopica) , and abundant resident in south below 
5°N [intermedia) in bushland, grasslands and cultivations. 2c, 9ac, 
lie, 18abd, 19a, 48ac, 50b, 53abc, 54bcd, 55b, 56bcd, 57d, 58a, 60c, 
61abd, 62abd, 63abc, 66abd, 67d, 68abc, 69a, 71bd, 72ab, 73bcd, 
74abc, 75abd. Breeding: 61bd, 62ab, 63bc, 68bc. 



Sub-family Bubalorni thinae 

598. Bubalornis niger intermedius Red-billed Buffalo Weaver* 1285 
Common widespread resident south of 5° N and in western areas north 

of this line (absent from large area of NE) , in bushland, cultivation 
and grassland with trees; wanders. lie, 18a, 19ab, 20d, 21c, 20ab, 
33bc, 36bd, 37a, 40cd, 41bc, 46d, 47c, 48acd, 50abc, 53bc, 54d, 55c, 
56bcd, 57bd, 58a, 60ac, 61ab, 62abd, 63abc, 66ad, 67acd, 68abc, 69a, 
70d, 71abd, 72abc, 73d, 74abc, 75ab. Breeding: 21c. 28b, 53b, 62a, 
63c, 68a, 71d. 

599. Dinemellia dinemelli dinemelli White-headed Buffalo Weaver* 1286 
Common widespread resident except in NE, where unrecorded, in 
cultivations and grasslands with bushes or trees. 2c, 9ac, lie, 

18ab, 19ab, 20abcd, 21d, 23d, 24abc, 28ab, 30bc , 33bcd, 34d, 35ac, 
36d, 37ac, 38cd, 40c, 41bc, 43a, 48acd, 50abc, 53abc, 54acd, 55c, 
56bcd, 57d, 58a, 59d, 60acd, 61abc, 62abd, 63abcd, 64c, 66abcd, 
67acd, 68abc, 70b, 71abd, 72ab, 73d, 74abc, 75abd. Breeding: lie, 
18a, 19b, 20abd, 28b, 48c, 61b, 62d, 63c, 66b, 68c. 71d. 

600. Plocepasser donaldsoni Donaldson-Smith's Sparrow Weaver+ 1289 
Only known from a small resident population in a restricted area of 
southern bushland. 71a. Breeding: 71a. 

601. Plocepasser mahali propinquatus White-browed Sparrow Weaver* 1287 
Locally fairly common resident in south below 3°30'N west to the Juba 
but very patchily distributed, in bushland and open wooded grassland. 
55c, 57d, 60c, 61ac, 62ab, 63bc, 66bc, 68c, 69a, 71d, 72b, 74b. 
Breeding: 57d, 61ac, 62ab, 63c, 68c, 71d. 

602. Pseudonigrita arnaudi arnaudi Grey-headed Social Weaver+ 1291 
Three recent records from one site in south where presumably resident. 

603. Pseudonigrita cabanisi Black-capped Social Weaver* 1292 
Throe old records in south in May on western border with Kenya. 

52c, 59a. 

Sub-family Passerinae 

604. Passer castanopterus castanopterus Somali Sparrow* 1298 
Very common widespread resident south to 3° N extending down coast 

to 1°30'N, in towns, villages, bushland and rocky areas. 2c, 9a, 
lOcd, lie, 13c, Mac, 15a, 17c, 18b, 20abcd, 21d, 22a, 23abcd, 24abc, 
25a, 28ab, 29acd, 30bc, 31ac, 15b, 36d, 37a, 38d, 41abc, 

43d, 49c, 50bc, 51a, 54d, 57d, 58a, 64a, 69a. Breeding: 2c, lOd, 
i, 54d, 69a. 

605. Passer domesticus House Sparrow** 1293 
P.<l. One old record from north coast 

Apr (n; Ly found Mogadishu Dec 1981 (i/xficu 

606. Passer eminibey Chestnut Spat 1306 
One old record Pi details, and 2 recer • 
from one southern area of bushland. 7 lac. 


607. Passer euchlorus Arabian Golden Sparrow+ 1305 
Locally common resident with three old and 6 recent records in a 

short western sector of the north coast in Acacia and Tamarix. 
2c, lOad. Breeding: 2c, lOd. 

608. Passer griseus Grey-headed Sparrow* 1300, 1301, 1303 
P.g. gongonensis; P.g. griseus; P.g. swainsoni. Common widespread 
resident, but absent from NE and central areas. In NW swainsoni 
occurs to the west of 49° E and above 9°N> gongonensis occurs widely 
below 5°N, and there is one old record of griseus in the north within 
the range of swainsoni. In bushland, woodland, cliffs and caves, and 
towns and villages. 

P.g. swainsoni: 4c, 8d, 9ac, 10c, lie, 13ac, 14ab, 18ab, 19ab, 20abd, 

22a. Breeding: 4c, lie, 14ab, 19a, 20a. 

P.g. griseus: 20a. 

P.g. gongonensis: 44d, 48a, 50b, 53b, 56cd, 57d, 60acd, 62bd, 63abc, 

66ac, 68bc, 69a, 71bd, 72b, 73d, 74ab, 75ad. Breeding: 48a, 63c, 

68b, 69a. 

609. Passer motitensis shelleyi Rufous Sparrow+ 1294 
Five old records of a small very localised resident population in 
thornbush on the NW border. 18ac. Breeding: 18a. 

610. Petronia pyrgita Ye How- spotted Petronia* 1308 
Common resident throughout in bushland, cultivation and open woodland. 
4c, 6c, 8b, 9c, lie, 14a, 15a, 18ab, 19ab, 20ab, 21c, 24ac, 28b, 29a, 
30b, 33bc, 35ab, 37a, 38bd, 40c, 41ab, 52c, 53abc, 54ac, 55c, 58a, 
59ad, 60c, 61a, 62a, 63bc, 72b, 73d, 74ab, 75a. Breeding: 20ab. 

Sub-family Sporopipinae 

611. Sporopipes frontalis emini Speckle- fronted Weaver+ 1311 
One Jan record from the south. 70d. 

Sub-family Viduinae 

612. Hypochera chalybeata Red-billed Firefinch Indigobird*+ 1435 
Unaccountably rare presumed resident with only 3 old and 4 recent 
records scattered below 3°N, in association with Lagonosticta senegala 
(q.v.) . 59d, 63bc, 68b. 

613. Vidua fischeri Straw-tailed Whydah* 1443 
Presumed resident, widespread but uncommon in western areas of the 
north, and with curious patchy distribution below 7°N, associated 

with Uraeginthus ianthinogaster (q.v.) in bushland. 10c, 18ab, 19ab, 
20c, 27a, 28abc, 33d, 34a, 40d, 52c, 57d, 59a, 60c, 62ad, 63c, 68b, 
69a, 71d, 74b. 

614. Vidua hypocherina Steel-blue Whydah* 1442 
Uncommon presumed resident with 10 old and only 3 recent records 
scattered in south below 4° N and west of 44° E; and in NW west of 

46° E apparently associated with Estrilda spp. (q.v.) in bushland 
near water. lie, 18b, 19a, 53d, 54c, 59a, 60c, 63c, 71ad, 75a. 



615. Vidua macroura Pin-tailed Whydah* 1441 
Locally common presumed resident below 5 P N in wet areas in Shebelle 

and Juba valleys and south; apparently associated with Estrilda spp. 
(q.v.). 48a, 60c, 62bd, 63abc, 67d, 68bc, 71bd, 74b, 75a. 

616. Vidua paradisaea Paradise Whydah* 1444 
Locally common presumed resident in NW west of 47° E and in south 

below 5"N in bushland and cultivation, associated with Pytilia melba. 
10a, lie, 18ab, 19a, 20cd, 28b, 48ac, 56bcd, 57d, 60c, 61ac, 62abd, 
63abc, 66abd, 68bc, 71abd, 72a, 73d, 74b, 75a. 

Family ESTRILDIDAE Waxbills, etc. 
Sub-family Estrildinae 

617. Estrilda astrild minor Waxbill 1418 
Inexplicably scarce presumed resident with one old and one recent 
record at 2 sites on the Juba, and often recently at one site on 

the Shebelle in marshland vegetation. 68b, 71bd. 

618. Estrilda erythronotos charmosyna Black-cheeked Waxbill* 1427 
Uncommon presumed resident in bushland and open woodland, in NW 

west of 45°30'E and above 9°30'N, and widely and thinly scattered 

in south below 5°N. 2c, lie, 18ab, 19a, 20b, 49c, 52c, 60c, 63c, 71a. 

619. Estrilda rhodopyga rhodopyga Crimson- rumped Waxbill* 1420 
Uncommon presumed resident in scattered localities in south between 

1° - 5"N, and 3 records in NW west of 45° E, in cultivated and grassy 
areas with bush, trees or scrub. 18ab, 19a, 48a, 60c, 63bc, 68b. 

620. Hypargos niveoguttatus macrospilotus Peters' Twinspot+ 1406 
Recently found to be an apparently fairly common presumed resident 

in farthest south in forest undergrowth. 75a. 

621. Lagonosticta senegala somaliensis Red-billed Firefinch* 14 13 
A rather uncommon resident in south below 5°N, and 2 recent records 

in NW west of 44°30'E, in variety of wooded and bushed grassy areas 
and near habitations. 18b, 19a, 48a, 60c, 62bd, 63abc, 66acd, 68ab, 
71abd, 74b. Breeding: 48a, 63c. 

622. Ortygospiza atricollis fuscocrissa Quailfinch+ 1403 
One old record from the NW. 19a. 

623. mt'lba soudanensis Green-winged Pytilia* 1410 
Fairly common widespread resident, except unrecorded 5° - 7"N, 

in bushland, woodland undergrowth and scrub. 2c, 6c, 9a, lie, 18ac, 

lbd« 20acd, 21c, 24ab, 27a, 28bc, 29< , , 15c, 50c, 52bc, 5 
54a, 56bc, 57d, 58a, 59d, 60cd, 61ab, 62b, 63abcd, 66cd, 67d, 68b, 
71abd, 72b, 73d, 74abc, 75ad. Breeding: lie, 18ac, 20a, 52bc, 59d, 66c. 

624. Uraeginthus bengalus Red-cheeked Cordonbleu+ 

U.b. toralis. Apparently very uncommon 

resident Id and 5 recent records, in scrub, bushy areas and 
forest edge} ap; far south below the equator, 

and brunneigxilaris (presumed) in south on western border, b •..' 
dial . is not U , 75ab. Breedin : 



625. Uraeginthus cyanocephalus Blue-capped Cordonbleu*+ 1432 
Very uncommon resident with 5 old and 4 recent records scattered 

in southern bushland between 2° - 5°N. 45c, 52c, 61a, 63c. 
Breeding: 52c. 

626. Uraeginthus ianthinogaster Purple Grenadier* 1433 
Locally fairly common resident of bushland and undergrowth, with 
apparently discontinuous scattered distribution and absent from many 
areas including NE and large parts of central and south. lie, 18ab, 
19ab, 20abc, 28ab, 30b, 33b, 38bd, 52c, 57bd, 60c, 61a, 63cd, 68c, 

69a, 73c, 74b, 75ab. Breeding: 52c. 

Sub- family Amadinae 

627. Amadina fasciata alexanderi Cut-throat* 1402 
Rather uncommon resident in bushland and open woodland, in NW west 

of 47°E and above 9°N, and widely scattered in south below 5°N. 
9c, 18ab, 19a, 20cd, 21c, 48a, 53b, 56c, 60c, 63c, 71a, 74b. 
Breeding: 20c. 

628. Lonchura bicolor nigriceps Black and White Mannikin+ 1381 
Apparently rare presumed resident with one old and 3 recent records 
below 1°N in lower Juba, and southern, woodland edges. 71bd, 75a. 

629. Lonchura malabarica orientalis Silverbill* 1383 
Uncommon resident with patchy distribution west of 49° E and souch 

to 1°N in thornbush, wooded areas and near habitation. 2c, 4c, 8b, 
9ab, lOcd, lie, 18ab, 19a, 20b, 28b, 30b, 40c, 41c, 48a, 54c, 60a, 
62ad, 63bc, 69a. Breeding: 8b, lie, 63c. 

Family FRINGILLIDAE Buntings, Canaries, Seed-eaters 
Sub-family Emberizinae 

630. Emberiza hortulana Ortolan Bunting+ 1472 
Palaearctic migrant with at least 5 old records Sep - Oct in NW 

above 9°30'N, probably on passage only. lie, 18a, 20a. 

631. Emberiza poliopleura Somali Golden-breasted Bunting* 1470 
Common widespread bushland resident but absent from large area of 

NE. lie, 18ab, 19ab, 28a, 30bc, 33b, 37a, 40cd, 41ac, 43d, 45c, 46d, 
47c, 48d, 49b, 52b, 53abc, 54acd,' 56bc, 57bd, 58a, 59a, 60c, 61ac, 
63bc, 68bc, 69a, 74b. Breeding: 52b, 59a. 

632. Emberiza striolata striolata House Bunting 1477 
Locally very common presumed resident in maritime strip of north 

coast east of 45° E and at one site near 9°N, in rocky areas. 5c, 
6b, 7a, lie, 14b, 16c, 30b. 

6 33. Emberiza tahapisi tahapisi Cinnamon-breasted Rock Bunting 1476 

Locally common resident of NW west of 48° E and north of 9°30'E in 
rocky areas with trees and scrub. 8b, lie, 13a, 18a, 19a, 20a. 
Breeding: 20a. 


Sub-family Carduelinae 

634. Serinus atrogularis roichenowi Ye 1 Low-rumped Seed-eater* 
Locally common resident patchily distributed in south below 5° N and 
west of 46°E, in bushland, scrub and cultivations. 46d, 47c, 63bc, 
66a, 68b, 71bd, 73d, 74b, 75a. Breeding: 63c. 

635. Serinus donaldsoni donaldsoni Grosbeak Canary* 1452 
Uncommon presumed resident in bushland, widespread but patchily 
distributed south of 10°N. 21c, 28ac, 30b, 33b, 34d, 37a, 49b, 50b, 
52c, 56b, 63cd, 74b. 

636. Serinus dorsostriatus maculicoll is White-bellied Canary* 
Locally common resident, widespread but rather patchily distributed 
west of 47°30'E in bushland, scrub and cultivation. 8b, 9c, lie, 
18ab, 19ab, 20abc, 21c, 28c, 40c, 41b, 57d, 58a, 59a, 63bc, 68b, 69a, 
74b. Breeding: 63c. 

637. Serinus tristriatus Brown-rumped Seed-eater 1455 
Locally very common presumed resident in montane scrub and undergrowth 
between 44° - 49°E and above 9° 30 ' N. 4c, lie, 13a, 14ab, 19ab, 20a. 

638. Acanthis johannis Warsangeli Linnet 1466 
Locally very common endemic, presumably resident in restricted range 

at high altitude in northern mountains between 47° - 49°E south to 
10° 30' N, in Juniper and other woodland and scrub. 4c, 13a, 14b. 

639. Rhynchostruthus socotranus louisae Golden-winged Grosbeak 1447 
Locally fairly common presumed resident in north between 43°30'E - 
48°30'E south to 9*30' N in rather bare or stony areas with scattered 
Euphorbias , scrub or trees. 5c, lie, 13a, 14a, 18b, 19b, 20a. 


Bl. Puffinus camel pes Pale-footed Shearwater* 

Fregetta tropica Black-bellied Storm Petrel* 8 

B < . ' >rm Pet i 


is Kl (H |R| |) 


See comments under Capi 

p2 Caprimulgus fossil Gabon N 

See comments under Ca u clarus in List A. 


C3. Cisticola bodessa Boran Cisticola+ 1024 

See comments under Cisticola chiniana in List A. 45c, 66c. 


Dl. Bulweria brevirostris Mascarene Black Petrel 13 

Archer & Godman's (1937) specimens have been reidentified as 
Bulweria fallax. 

D2. Gypaetus barbatus meridionalis Lammergeyer 162 

van Someren's (1929) record is from a locality in Kenya. 

D3. Francolinus psilolaemus ellenbecki Moorland Francolin 198 

van Someren's (1922) record from Dolo is not generally accepted. 

D4. Pluvialis apricarius Golden Plover 

The records in Archer & Godman (1937) are discredited by Mackworth- 
Praed & Grant (1941) . 

D4a. Sterna sandvicensis Sandwich Tern • 354 

Ninni's (1932) account of finding this species to be very common and 
extremely abundant ("comunissima ad estremamente abbondante") at Hafun, 
although accepted by Moltoni (1936) , must be considered very doubtful 
for this rather rare migrant. 

D5. Columba albitorques White-collared Pigeon 377 

The specimen collected by North at Eil is in the National Museum, 
Nairobi, and is referable to Columba olivae. 

D6. Turtur afer Blue-spotted Wood Dove 395 

We consider that 2 old records from the south in Mar and Jun are open 
to question. 

D7. Chrysococcyx cupreus cupreus Emerald Cuckoo 416 

Moltoni 's (1935) two records were subsequently corrected to 
Chrysococcyx caprias (Moltoni 1936) . 

D8. Asio flammeus flammeus Short-eared Owl 531 

The locality for the bird in Archer & Godman (1961) is in Ethiopia. 

D9. Bycanistes brevis Silvery-cheeked Hornbill 501 

The old record from Brava by Von der Decken (1869) included in Moltoni 
(1936) seems highly improbable from this arid coastal locality. 

D10. Riparia paludicola African Sand Martin 1069 

Heuglin's (1869-1874) record from the Somalia coast is queried by 
Moltoni (1936), and may not have been from present-day Somalia. 

Dll. Turdoides rubiginosus rubiginosus Rufous Chatterer 732 

The nominate race locality in Sharpe (1875) is in Ogaden (Ethiopia). 



D12. Campephaga phoenicea Red-shouldered Cuckoo Shrike 1083 

The records in Hall & Moreau (1970) and van Someren (1929) require 

D13. Luscinia svecica Blue throat 919 

Phillips' (1896) record is insufficiently substantiated for a sight 

D14. Hippolais caligata rama Sykes ' Warbler 

The record from Berbera in Archer & Godman (1961) is not recognized 
by subsequent authorities . 

D15. Sylvia cantillans Subalpine Warbler 931 

Hawker's (1899) record is Sylvia mystacea (Moreau 1972). 

D16. Sylvia hortensis Orphean Warbler 927 

Erlanger's (1905) record from Aruwein is an Ethiopian locality. 

D17. Sylvietta whytii minima Red-faced Crombec 997 

van Someren 's (1922) record is excluded from his later papers and 
collection catalogue. 

D18. Bias musicus Black and White Flycatcher 812 

A recent sight record by J. Haslam along the Juba River is almost 
certainly correct, but confirmation would be desirable. 

D19. Motacilla flava flavissima Yellow Wagtail 697 

Archer & Godman 's (1961) record from Bihendula is highly improbable 
for this race and is probably referable to M.f. lutea . 

D20. Onychognathus morio Red-winged Starling 1203 

Phillips (1896) presumably misidentified O. blythii in the Goolis Mts. 
as this species. 

D21. Euplectes hordeaceus hordeaceus Black-winged Red Bishop 1365 

Erlanger's (1907) record from the Juba River was a female, and 
probably misidentified, for it is far outside the known range of 
this species. 

D22. Ploceus taeniopterus Northern Masked Weaver 1316 

All Erlanger's (1907) records were females, and probably misidentified. 
The Juba River is far outside the known range of this species. 

D23. Lonchura cucullata Bronze Mannikin 1379 

Erlanger's (1907) specimens were presumably reidentified by Hilgert 
(1908) as Lonchura bicolor nigriceps. 

D24. Lonchura griseicapilla Grey-headed Silverbill 1384 

Moltoni ' s (1935) record seems too improbable on grounds of distribution. 

D25. Serinus mozambicus Yellow-fronted Canary 1448 

Listed by van Someren (1922) without details from south Juba, but 
this area is partly in present-day Kenya. 



El. Corvus albus x Corvus ruficollis edithae Pied Crow x Brown- 
necked Raven* 1172 x 1171 
Frequent recently in and around Mogadishu and once at Brava. 
63c, 68c, 69a. 

E2. Passer castanopterus x Passer domesticus Somalia Sparrow x 

House Sparrow*+ 1298 x 1293 
One recent record from SE coast in Mar. 69a. 

7 8 


ASH, J.S. Over 50 additions to the Somalia list, including two hybrids, 
with notes from Kenya and Ethiopia. In prep. = 1983, Scopus 1 : 54-79. 

& POMEROY, D.E. 1981. Mapping schemes in the Afrotropical Region 

Scopus 5: 36-38. 

ARCHER, G.F. & GODMAN, E.M. 1937. The birds of British Somaliland and the 
Gulf of Aden. Vols 1 & 2. London: Gurney & Jackson. 

1961. The birds of British Somaliland and the 

Gulf of Aden. Vols 3 & 4. Edinburgh & London: Oliver & Boyd. 

BRITTON, P.L. (ed.) 1980. Birds of East Africa. Nairobi: EANHS. 

COLSTON, P.R. 1982. A new species of Mirafra (Alaudidae) and a new race 
of the Somali Long-billed Lark Mirafra somalica , Thekla Lark Galerida 
malabarica and Malindi Pipit Anthus melindae from southern coastal 
Somalia. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 102: 106-114. 

DEVILLERS, P. 1977. The skuas of the north American Pacific coast. 
Auk 94: 417-429. 

ERLANGER, C.F. 1905. Beitrage zur Vogelfauna Nordostafrikas . Journal fur 
Ornithologie 1905: 42-158, 433-499, 670-756. 

1907. Beitrage zur Vogelfauna Nordostafrikas. Journal fur 

Ornithologie 1907: 1-58. 

HALL, B.P. & MOREAU, R.E. 1970. An atlas of speciation in African passerine 
birds. London: British Museum (Natural History). 

HAWKER, R.McD. 1899. On the results of a collecting- tour of three months 
in Somali-land. Ji>is 1899: 52-81. 

HEUGLIN, M.Tn. 1869-1874. Ornithologie Nordost Afrikas, der Nilquellen 

und Kusten-Gebiete des Rothen Meeres und Somal-Landes. Cassel : Fischer. 

HILGERT, C. 1908. Katalog der Collection von Erlanger in Nieder-Ingelheim 
a Rh. Berlin: Friedlander & Sohn. 

MACKWORTH-PRAED, C.W. & GRANT, C.H.B. 1941. Systematic notes on East 
African birds. XXVIII. Ibis 85: 617-618. 

1957, 1960. African handbook of 

birds. Series 1, Vols 1 & 2. Birds of eastern and north eastern Africa 
2nd Edition. London: Longmans Green & Co. 

MOLTONI, E. 1935. Contributo alia conoscenza degli Uccelli della Somalia 
Italiana. Atti della Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo 
Civico di Storia Naturale Milano 74: 333-371. 

1936. Gli uccelli fino ad oggi notificati per la Somali; 

Italiana. Atti della Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali 75: 307-389. 

& RUSCONE, G.G. 1940-1944. Gli uccelli dell' Africa Orientale 

Italiana . Vols 1-3. Milano. 

MOREAU, R.E. 1972. The Palaearctic-African bird migration systems. 
London: Academic Press. 


NINNI, E. 1932. Note ornithologiche . Sterna cantiaca. Rivista Italiana 
di Ornithologia 1932: 33-34. 

PHILLIPS, E.L. 1896. On birds observed in the Goolis Mountains in Northern 
Somaliland. Ibis 1896: 62-87. 

SHARPE, R.B. 1895. On a collection of birds made by Dr. A. Donaldson Smith 
during his recent expedition in Western Somali-land. Proceedings of the 
Zoological Society of London 1895: 457-520. 

SNOW, D.W. (ed.) 1978. An atlas of speciation in African non-passerine 
birds. London: British Museum (Natural History) . 

THOMSON, A.L. (ed.) A new dictionary of birds. London: Nelson. 

VAN SOMEREN, V.G.L. 1922. Notes on the birds of East Africa. Novitates 
Zoologicae 29: 1-246. 

1929. Notes on the birds of Jubaland and the Northern 

Frontier. Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society 
35: 25-70. 

VAURIE, C. 1959. The birds of the Palaearctic fauna. Passeriformes . 
London: Witherby. 

1965. The birds of the Palaearctic fauna. Non-Passer if ormes . 

London: Witherby. 

VON DER DECKEN, C.C. 1869. Reisen in Ost-afrika. (Vol 4, Finsch & Hartlaub) . 
Leipzig & Heidelberg. 

WETMORE, A. 1960. A classification for the birds of the world. Smithsonian 
Miscellaneous Collection 139(11): 1-37. 

WHITE, C.M.N. 1960. A check list of the Ethiopian Muscicapidae (Sylviinae) . 
Part 1. Occasional papers of the National Museums of Southern Rhodesia 
3 (24B) : 399-430. 

1961. A revised check list of African broadbills , pittas, 

larks, swallows , wagtails and pipits. Lusaka: Government Printer. 

1962a. A check list of the Ethiopian Muscicapidae (Sylviinae) . 

Part II and III. Occasional papers of the National Museums of Southern 
Rhodesia 3 (26B) : 653-738. 

— 1962b. A revised check list of African Shrikes, Orioles, 

drongos, starlings , crows, waxwings, cuckoo-shrikes , bulbuls, accentors, 
thrushes and babblers. Lusaka: Government Printer. 

■ 1963. A revised check list of African flycatchers, tits, 

tree creepers, sunbirds, white-eyes, honey eaters, buntings, finches, 
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1965. A revised check list of African non-passerine birds. 

Lusaka: Government Printer. 



Numbers refer to species, not pages 

Apalis, Black-headed 460 

Yellow-breasted 459 
Avocet 203 

Babbler, Scaly 412 

White -rumped 410 
Barbet, Black-throated 347 

Brown-breasted 348 

d'Arnaud's 350 

Red and Yellow 351 

Yellow-breasted 352 
Bateleur 84 
Batis, Black-headed 505 

Grey-headed 506 

Pygmy 507 
Bee-eater, Blue-cheeked 327 

Carmine 325 

Cinnamon-breasted 326 

Eurasian 324 

Little 328 

Madagascar 330 

Somali 329 

White-throated 323 
Bishop, Black-winged Red D21 

Fire-fronted 584 

Northern Red 585 
Bittern, Dwarf 21 

Little 20 
Blackbird, Somali 449 
Blackcap 487 
Blue throat D13 
Booby , Brown 1 3 

Masked 12 

Red- footed 14 
Boubou, Slate-coloured 530 

Tropical 529 
Brownbul 419 

Northern 418 
Brubru 535 
Bulbul, Common 420 
Bunting, Cinnamon-breasted Rock 633 

House 632 

Ortolan 630 

Somali Golden-breasted 631 
Bustard, Arabian 154 

Black-bellied 150 

Buff-crested 151 

Hartlaub's 148 

Heuglin's 153 

Kori 155 

Little Brown 149 

White-bellied 152 
Button Quail 135 
Buzzard, Augur 95 

Common 96 

Grasshopper 94 

Lizard 101 

Long-legged 97 

Camaroptera, Grey-backed 461 
Canary, Grosbeak 635 

White-bellied 336 

Yellow- fronted D25 
Chat, Black-tailed Rock 422 

Brown- tailed Rock 423 

Red-capped Robin 430 

Rufous Bush 424 

Sombre Rock 421 

White-browed Robin 429 
Chatterer, Rufous 411, Dll 

Scaly 409 
Chi ff chaff 479 
Cisticola, Ashy 467 

Boran C3 

Croaking 471 

Desert 463 

Pectoral-patch 465 

Rattling 466 

Siffling 464 

Tiny 470 

Winding 468 

Zitting 469 
Coot, Red- knobbed 146 
Cordon-bleu, Blue-capped 625 

Red-cheeked 624 
Cormorant, Greater 16 

Long- tailed 15 

Socotran 17 
Corncrake 136 
Coucal, Senegal 279 

White-browed 280 
Courser, Cream-coloured 209 

Heuglin's 211 

Two-banded 210 
Crake, Black 139 

Buff-spotted Pygmy 145 

Lesser Spotted 144 

Little 142 

Spotted 143 
Crombec, Northern 495 

Red- faced D17 

Somali Long-billed 496 

Somali Short-billed 497 
Crow, Pied 402, El 
Cuckoo, African 275 

Black and White 272 

Didric 269 

Emerald D7 

Eurasian 274 

Great Spotted 271 

Klaas' 270 

Lesser 276 

Levaillant's 273 

Red-chested 277 
Cuckoo Shrike, Black 413 

Red-shouldered D12 
Curlew 178 

Stone 207 
Cut-throat 627 

Darter 18 

Dove, Blue-spotted Wood D6 

Dusky Turtle 256 

Emerald-spotted Wood 262 

Laughing 260 

Mourning 255 

Namaqua 253 

Pink-headed 258 

Red-eyed 259 

Ring-necked 254 

Tambourine 263 

Turtle 261 

White-winged 257 
Drongo 397 

Square-tailed 398 
Duck, Fulvous Whistling 52 

Knob-billed 67 

Tufted 64 

White-backed 68 

White-faced Whistling 53 

Yellow-billed 63 
Dunlin 191 

Eagle, African Fish 107 
African Hawk 100 
Ayres* Hawk 98 
Black-chested Snake 83 
Booted 99 
Brown Snake 81 
Long-crested 102 
Martial 106 
Southern Banded Snake 82 

Steppe 90 

Tawny 91 

Verreaux's 92 

Wahlberg's 93 
Egret, Cattle 28 

Great White 30 

Little 32 

Yellow-billed 34 
Eremomela, Yellow-bellied 473 

Yellow-vented 472 

Falcon, Barbary 120 
Eastern Red-footed 114 
Eleonora's 118 
Lanner 115 
Peregrine 121 
Pygmy 125 
Red-necked 116 
Sooty 117 
Finfoot, African 147 
Firefinch, Red-billed 621 
Fiscal, Long-tailed 539 
Somali 547 
Taita 541 
Flamingo, Greater 51 

Lesser 50 
Flycatcher, Ashy 502 
Black and White D18 
Collared 500 
Crested 511 
Gambaga 503 
Grey 498 

Little Yellow 509 
Pale 499 
Paradise 510 
Southern Black 501 
Spotted 504 
Francolin, Chestnut-naped 128 
Crested 131 
Lort Phillips' 130 
Moorland D3 
Frigatebird, Lesser 19 

Gadwall 62 

Gallinule, Allen's 140 

Purple 141 
Gargany 61 

Go-away Bird, White-bellied 267 
Godwit, Bar-tailed 198 

Black-tailed 199 
Goose , African Pygmy 66 

Egyptian 54 
Goshawk, African 89 

Dark Chanting 104 


Gabar 103 

Pale Chanting 105 
Grebe, Little 2 
Greenbul , Fischer's 417 

Yellow-bellied 415 

Zanzibar Sombre 414 
Greenshank 182 
Grenadier, Purple 626 
Grosbeak, Golden-winged 639 
Guineafowl, Helmeted 134 

Kenya Crested 133 

Vulturine 132 
Gull, Black-headed 225 

Great Black-headed 223 

Grey-headed 220 

Herring 219 

Lesser Black -backed 221 

Sabine's 226 

Sooty 222 

White-eyed 224 

Hadada 44 

Hamerkop 36 

Harrier, African Marsh 79 

Eurasian Marsh 76 

Montagu's 78 

Pallid 77 
Hawk, Bat 112 

Cuckoo 109 

Harrier 80 
Heron, African Reef 33 

Black 31 

Black-headed 24 

Goliath 23 

Green-backed 29 

Grey 22 

Madagascar Squacco 26 

Night 35 

Purple 25 

Squacco 27 
Hobby 123 

Honeybird, Wahlberg's 356 
Honeyguide, Black-throated 353 

Lesser 354 

Scaly-throated 355 
Hoopoe 336 

Green Wood 339 
Hornbill, Abyssinian Ground 346 

Crowned 340 

Grey 345 

Hemprich's 344 

Red-billed 342 

Silvery-cheeked D9 

Von der Deckens 341 

Yellow-billed 343 

Ibis, Bald 45 

Glossy 46 

Sacred 47 
Indigobird, Red-billed Firefinch 612 
Irania 431 

Jacana 156 

Kestrel 124 

Lesser 119 

White-eyed 122 
Kingfisher, Brown-hooded 318 

Chestnut-bellied 321 

Giant 314 

Malachite 316 

Mangrove 322 

Pied 315 

Pygmy 317 

Striped 319 

White-collared 320 
Kite, Black 108 

Black-shouldered 111 

Swallow-tailed 110 
Knot 192 

Lammergeyer D2 

Lark, Chestnut-backed Sparrow 370 

Chestnut-headed Sparrow 372 

Collared 380 

Crested 373 

Desert 365 

Fawn-coloured 377 

Flappet 385 

Gillett's 381 

Hoopoe 36 3 

Lesser Hoopoe 364 

Long-clawed 384 

Obbia 368 

Pink -breasted 383 

Red- capped 367 

Red Somali 376 

Red-winged Bush 382 

Rufous Short-toed 369 

Short -crested 375 

Short-tailed 374 

Short-toed 366 

Singing Bush 379 

Somali Long-billed 386 

Warsheikh 378 

White- fronted Sparrow 371 
Linnet, Warsangeli 638 
Longclaw, Pangani 519 

Yellow-throated 520 

Mannikin, Black and White 628 


Bronze D2 3 
Marabou 42 
Martin, African Rock 391 

African Sand DlO 

Banded 395 

House 387 

Sand 396 
Moorhen, Common 138 

Lesser 137 
Mousebird,. Blue-naped 312 

Speckled 311 

White-headed 310 

Nicator 416 

Nightingale 433 

Nightjar, Donaldson-Smith's 293 

Dusky 295 

Egyptian 291 

Eurasian 294 

Gabon C2 

Long-tailed Cl 

Nubian 297 

Pennant-winged 300 

Plain 296 

Slender-tailed 292 

Standard-winged 299 

Star-spotted 298 
Noddy, Common 227 

Lesser 228 

Oriole, African Golden 399 

Black-headed 400 

Golden 401 
Osprey 113 
Ostrich 1 
Owl, African Wood 285 

Barn 281 

Little 282 

Pel's Fishing 290 

Scops 289 

Short-eared D8 

Spotted Eagle 283 

Verreaux's Eagle 284 

White-faced Scops 288 
Owlet, Barred 286 

Pearl-spotted 287 
Oxpecker, Red-billed 566 
Oystercatcher 158 

Parisoma, Banded 478 
Parrakeet, Rose-ringed 266 
Parrot, Orange-bellied 265 
Pelican, Pink-backed 11 
White 10 

Petrel, Black-bellied Storm B2 

Jouanin's 3 

Kerguelen 5 

Mascarene Black Dl 

White-faced Storm B3 

Wilson's Storm 8 
Petronia, Yellow-spotted 610 
Phalarope, Red-necked 204 
Pigeon, Bruce ' s Green 264 

Feral 251 

Olive 249 

Somali Rock 252 

Speckled 250 

White-collared D5 
Pintail 55 
Pipit, Golden 525 

Long-billed 517 

Malindi 515, 

Plain-backed 514 

Red- throated 513 

Richard's 516 

Tawny 512 

Tree 518 
Plover, Black-headed 176 

Black-winged 173 

Caspian 160 

Crab 205 

Crowned 170 

Golden D4 

Grey 169 

Kentish 159 

Lesser Golden 168 

Little ringed 161 

Ringed 162 

Senegal 172 

Sociable 171 

Spur-winged 175 

Three-banded 167 

Wattled 174 
Pochard, Southern 65 
Pratincole, Black-winged 212 

Common 214 

Madagascar 213 
Prion, Dove 4 
Prinia, Pale 484 

Striped-backed 483 

Tawny- flanked 485 
Puffback, Black -backed 526 

Northern 627 

Pringle's 528 
Pytilia, Green-winged 623 

Quail 126 
Harlequin 127 

Quailfinch 622 
Quelea, Red-billed 597 
Red-headed 596 

Raven, Brown-necked 406, El 

Fan-tailed 405 

Thick-billed 404 
Redshank 185 

Spotted 180 
Redstart 446 

Black 445 
Robin, Black Bush 426 

Eastern Bearded Scrub 427 

White-browed Scrub 425 
Roller, Abyssinian 331 

Broad-billed 335 

Eurasian 333 

Lilac-breasted 332 

Rufous-crowned 334 
Rook, Cape 403 
Ruff 200 

Sanderling 190 

Sandgrouse, Black-faced 245 

Chestnut-bellied 246 

Lichtenstein' s 247 

Spotted 248 
Sandpiper, Broad-billed 197 

Common 177 

Curlew 193 

Green 183 

Marsh 184 

Terek 186 

Wood 181 
Sandplover, Great 163 

Kittlitz's 166 

Mongolian 165 

White- fronted 164 
Scimitarbill 337 

Abyssinian 338 
Secretary Bird 69 
Seed-eater, Brown-rumped 637 

Yellow-rumped 634 
Shearwater, Audubon's 6 

Pale-footed Bl 

Wedge-tailed 7 
Shikra 85 
Shoveler 56 
Shrike, Chestnut-fronted Helmet 551 

Four-coloured Bush 533 

Grey 542 

Grey-headed Bush 532 

Helmet 549 

Lesser Grey 544 

Nubian 545 

Red-backed 540 

Red-naped Bush 531 

Red-tailed 543 

Retz's Helmet 550 

Rosy-patched 536 

Sulphur-breasted Bush 534 

White-crowned 548 

Woodchat 546 
Silverbill 629 

Grey-headed D24 
Skimmer, African 244 
Skua, Arctic 217 

Brown 216 

Pomarine 218 

South Polar 215 
Snipe, Common 187 

Jack 189 

Painted 157 

Pintail 188 
Sparrow, Arabian Golden 607 

Chestnut 606 

Grey-headed 608 

House 605, E2 

Rufous 609 

Somali 604, E2 
Sparrowhawk , Eurasian 88 

Great 86 

Little 87 
Spinetail, Bohm's 308 

Mottle-throated 309 
Spoonbill, African 48 

Eurasian 49 
Sprosser 432 

Spur fowl, Yellow-necked 129 
Starling, Black -breasted Glossy 556 

Blue-eared Glossy 555 

Bristle-crowned 559 

Eurasian 565 

Fischer's 562 

Golden-breasted 553 

Magpie 560 

Red-winged D20 

Ruppell's Long-tailed Glossy 557 

Shelley's 563 

Somali Chestnut-winged 558 

Superb 564 

Violet-backed 552 

Wattled 554 

White-crowned 561 
Stilt, Black-winged 202 
Stint, Little 194 

Red-necked 195 

Temminck's 196 

Stonechat 448 
Stork, Abdim's 38 

Open-billed 37 

Saddle-billed 41 

White 39 

Woolly-necked 40 

Yellow-billed 43 
Sunbird, Amethyst 570 

Collared 567 

Eastern Violet-backed 568 

Hunter's 573 

Little Purple-banded 571 

Mariqua 574 

Mouse-coloured 579 

Olive 576 

Pygmy 569 

Shining 572 

Smaller Black -bellied 

Variable 578 

Violet-breasted 577 
Swallow, Ethiopian 389 

Eurasian 392 

Mosque 393 

Red-rumped 390 

Striped 388 

Wire-tailed 394 
Swift, Alpine 305 

Eurasian 302 

Forbes-Watson's 303 

Little 301 

Nyanza 306 

Palm 307 

White-rumped 304 

Tchagra, Black-headed 5 38 

Three-streaked 537 
Teal 57 

Hottentot 59 

Red-billed 58 
Tern, Arctic 241 

Black 231 

Bridled 234 

Caspian 237 

Common 240 

Crested 236 

Gull-billed 232 

Lesser Crested 235 

Little 233 

Roseate 238 

Sandwich 243, D4a 

Sooty 239, 

Whiskered 229 

White-cheeked 242 

White-winged Black 230 

Thicknee, Spotted 206 

Water 208 
Thrush, Bare-eyed 450 

Blue Rock 436 

Little Rock 434 

Red- tailed Ant 4 37 

Rock 4 35 

Spotted Morning 428 
Tinkerbird, Red-fronted 349 
Tit, Grey 407 

Mouse-coloured Penduline 408 
Trogon, Narina's 313 
Tropicbird, Red-billed 10 
Turaco, Fischer's 268 
Turnstone 201 
Twinspot, Peters' 

Vulture, African White-backed 70 
Egyptian 7 3 
Hooded 72 
Lappet- faced 74 
R'uppell's 71 
White-headed 75 

Wagtail, African Pied 521 

Grey 52 3 

White 522 

Yellow 524, D19 
Warbler, African Reed 452 

Barred 494 

Basra Reed 454 

Brown Woodland 482 

Clamorous Reed 458 

Desert 493 

Garden 488 

Great Reed 451 

Grey Wren 462 

Icterine 474 

Lesser Swamp 453 

Marsh 455 

Menetries 492 

Olivaceous 477 

Olive-tree 476 

Orphean D16 

Red Sea 491 

Red-fronted 486 

Reed 457 

Sedge 456 

Subalpine D15 

Sykes' D14 

Upcher's 475 

Willow 481 

Wood 480 
Wattle-eye, Black-throated 508 


Waxbill 617 

Black-cheeked 618 

Crimson-rumped 619 
Weaver, Black-capped Social 603 

Black-headed 588 

Black-necked 592 

Chestnut 593 

Dark-backed 586 

Donaldson-Smith's Sparrow 600 

Golden Palm 587 

Grey-headed Social 602 

Grosbeak 581 

Juba 589 

Masked 591 

Northern Masked D22 

Red-billed Buffalo 598 

Red-headed 582 

Ruppell's 590 

Speckle- fronted 611 

Speke's 594 

Vitelline Masked 595 

White-browed Sparrow 601 

White-headed Buffalo 599 
Wheatear, Capped 443 

Desert 438 

Isabelline 439 

Mourning 440 

Northern 441 

Pied 444 

Somali 442 
Whimbrel 179 
Whinchat 447 

White-eye, Abyssinian 580 
Whitethroat 489 

Lesser 490 
Whydah, Paradise 616 

Pin-tailed 615 

Steel-blue 614 

Straw- tailed 613 
Widowbird, Fan- tailed 583 
Wigeon 60 
Woodpecker, Bearded 362 

Cardinal 361 

Golden-tailed 358 

Little Spotted 359 

Nubian 360 
Wryneck, Eurasian 357 

Yellowbill 278 



Numbers refer to species, not pages 

abdimii, Ciconia 38 
abingoni, Campethera 358 
abyssinica, Coracias 331 
abyssinica, Hirundo 388 
abyssinica, Zosterops 580 
abyssinicus, Bucorvus 346 
abyssinicus, Turdus 449 
Acanthis 638 
Accipiter 85 
Acrocephalus 451 
Acryllium 132 
Actitis 177 
Actophilornis 156 
acuta, Anas 55 
adsimilis, Dicruras 397 
aegyptiacus, Alopochen 54 
aegyptius, Caprimulgus 291 
aereus, Ceuthmochares 278 
aeruginosus , Circus 76 
aethereus, Phaethon 10 
aethiopica, Hirundo 389 
aethiopica, Threskiornis 47 
afer, Nilaus 535 
afer, Parus 407 
afer, Turtur D6 
af finis, Apus 301 
africana, Mirafra 376 
africanoides , Mirafra 377 
africanus, Actophilornis 156 
africanus, Bubo 283 
africanus, Gyps 70 
africanus, Phalacrocorax 15 
africanus, Rhinoptilus 210 
aguimp, Motacilla 521 
Alaemon 363 

alaudipes, Alaemon 363 
alba, Calidris 190 
alba, Egretta 30 
alba, Motacilla 522 
alba, Platalea 48 
alba, Tyto 281 
albicapillus, Spreo 561 
albicollis, Ficedula 500 
albicollis, Merops 323 
albifrons, Amblyospiza 581 
albifrons, Sterna 233 
albitorques, Columba D5 
albiventris, Halcyon 318 
alboterminatus, Tockus 340 
albus, Corvus 402, El 

Alcedo 316 

alcinus, Macheiramphus 112 

alexandrinus, Charadrius 159 

alleni, Porphyrio 140 

Alopochen 54 

alpina, Calidris 191 

Amadina 627 

Amblyospiza 581 

amethystina, Nectarinia 570 

Ammomanes 365 

amurensis, Falco 114 

anaethetus, Sterna 234 

Anaplectes 582 

Anas 55 

Anastomus 37 

Andropadus 414 

angulata, Gallinula 137 

Anhinga 18 

Anous 227 

Anthreptes 567 

An thus 512 

Apalis 459 

Apaloderma 313 

apiaster, Merops 324 

apricarius, Pluvialis D4 

Apus 301 

apus, Apus 302 

Aquila 90 

arabs, Otis 154 

Ardea 22 

Ardeola 26 

ardeola, Dromas 205 

ardesiaca, Egretta 31 

Arenaria 201 

argentatus , Larus 219 

aridula, Cisticola 463 

ariel, Fregata 19 

arnaudi, Pseudonigrita 602 

arquata, Numenius 178 

arquatrix, Columba 249 

arundinaceus, Acrocephalus 451 

ashi, Mirafra 378 

asiaticus, Charadrius' 160 

Asio D8 

astrild, Estrilda 617 

Athene 282 

atricapilla, Sylvia 487 

atricollis, Ortygospiza 622 

atrogularis, Serinus 634 

augur, Buteo 95 


aurantiigula, Macronyx 519 
auratus , Oriolus 399 
auritus , Nettapus 66 
Aviceda 109 

avosetta, Recurvirostra 203 
axillaris, Euplectes 583 
aylmeri , Turdoides 409 
Ay thy a 64 

badius , Accipiter 85 
baeticatus, Acrocephalus 452 
barbatus, Gypaetus D2 
barbatus, Pycnonotus 420 
Batis 505 

bellicosus, Polamaetus 106 
bengalensis, Sterna 235 
bengalus, Uraeginthus 624 
benghalensis, Rostratula 157 
bergii, Sterna 236 
berliozi, Apus 303 
biarmicus, Falco 115 
Bias D18 

bicolor, Dendrocygna 52 
bicolor, Lonchura 628 
bicolor, Ploceus 586 
bicolor, Speculipastor 560 
bifasciata, Nectarinia 571 
blanchoti, Malaconotus 532 
blythii, Onychognathus 558 
bodessa, Cisticola C3 
boehmi , Neaf rapus 308 
boehmi, Parisoma 478 
bojeri, Ploceus 587 
borin, Sylvia 488 
Bostrychia 44 

brachydactyla, Calandrella 366 
brachyptera, Cisticola 464 
brachyura, Camaroptera 461 
brachyura, Sylvietta 495 
Bradornis 498 
brevirostris, Bulweria Dl 
brevirostris, Pterodroma 5 
brevis, Bycanistes D9 
brunnescens, Cisticola 465 
Bubalornis 598 
Bubo 283 
Bubulcus 28 
Bucorvus 346 
Bulweria 3, Dl 
Buphagus 566 
Burhinus 206 
Butastur 94 
Buteo 95 
buteo, Buteo 96 

Butorides 29 
Bycanistes D9 

cabanisi, Lanius 539 
cabanisi, Pseudonigrita 603 
caerulescens, Muscicapa 502 
caeruleus, Elanus 111 
caffer, Apus 304 
cailliautii, Campethera 359 
Calandrella 366 
Calidris 190 
caligata, Hippolais D14 
Camaroptera 461 
camelus, Struthio 1 
Campephaga 413, Dl2 
campestris, Anthus 512 
Campethera 358 
canorus, Cuculus 274 
cantillans, Mirafra 379 
cantillans, Sylvia D15 
canutus, Calidris 192 
capense, Glaucidium 286 
capensis, Burhinus 206 
capensis, Corvus 403 
capensis, Oena 253 
capicola, Streptopelia 254 
Caprimulgus 291, Cl 
caprius, Chrysococcyx 269 
carbo, Phalacrocorax 16 
carneipes, Puffinus Bl 
caspia, Sterna 237 
castaneicollis, Francolinus 128 
castanopterus, Passer 604, E2 
Catharacta 215 
caudata, Coracias 332 
Centropus 279 
Cercomela 421 
Cercotrichas 424 
cervinus , Anthus 513 
Ceryle 314 
Ceuthmochares 278 
chalcospilos , Turtur 262 
chalybaeus, Lamprotornis 555 
chalybeata, Hypochera 612 
Charadrius 159 
Chelictinia 110 
chelicuti, Halcyon 319 
chicquera, Falco 116 
chiniana, Cisticola 466 
Chlidonias 229 
chloris, Halcyon 320 
chloris, Nicator 416 
Chlorocichla 415 
chloropus, Gallinula 138 


Chrysococcyx 269, D7 
Ciccaba 285 
Cichladusa 428 
Ciconia 38 
ciconia, Ciconia 39 
cincta, Riparia 395 
cinctus, Rhinoptilus 211 
cinerea, Ardea 22 
cinerea, Calandrella 367 
cinerea, Creatophora 554 
cinerea, Motacilla 523 
cinereola, Cisticola 467 
cinereus, Circaetus 81 
cinereus, Xenus 186 
Cinnyricinclus 552 
Circaetus 81 
Circus 76 

cirrocephalus , Larus 220 
Cisticola 463, C3 
Clamator 271 
clarus, Caprimulgus 292 
climacurus, Caprimulgus Cl 
clypeata, Anas 56 
Colius 310 

collaris, Anthreptes 567 
collaris, Mirafra 380 
collurio, Lanius 540 
collybita, Phylloscopus 479 
Columba 249, D5 
communis, Sylvia 489 
concolor, Falco 117 
Coracias 331 
coronatus, Vanellus 170 
corruscus, Lamprotornis 556 
Corvus 402, El 
Corythaixoides 267 
Cosmopsarus 553 
Cossypha 429 
Coturnix 126 
coturnix, Coturnix 126 
crassirostris , Corvus 404 
Creatophora 554 
crecca, Anas 57 
Crex 136 
crex, Crex 136 
cristata, Alcedo 316 
cristata, Fulica 146 
cristata, Galerida 373 
croceus, Macronyx 520 
cruentus, Rhodophoneus 536 
crumeniferus , Leptoptilos 42 
cubla, Dryoscopus 526 
cucullata, Lonchura D23 
cucullatus, Ploceus 588 

cuculoides , Aviceda 109 

Cuculus 274 

cupreus , Chrysococcyx D7 

curruca, Sylvia 490 

cursor, Cursorius 209 

Cursorius 209 

cyanocephalus , Uraeginthus 625 

cyanomelas, Phoeniculus 337 

cyanomelas, Trochocercus 511 

Cypsiurus 307 

dactylatra, Sula 12 
darnaudii, Trachyphonus 350 
daurica, Hirundo 390 
decipiens, Streptopelia 255 
deckeni, Tockus 341 
decoratus, Pterocles 245 
delegorguei, Coturnix 127 
Delichon 387 
Dendrocygna 52 
Dendropicos 361 
deserti, Ammomanes 365 
deserti, Oenanthe 438 
desolata, Pachyptila 4 
diadematus, Euplectes 584 
dichrocephalus , Ploceus 589 
Dicrurus 397 

dinemelli, Dinemellia 599 
Dinemellia 599 
domesticus, Passer 605, E2 
dominica, Pluvialis 168 
donaldsoni, Caprimulgus 293 
donaldsoni, Plocepasser 600 
donaldsoni, Serinus 635 
dorsalis, Lanius 541 
dorsostriatus , Serinus 636 
dougallii, Sterna 238 
Dromas 205 
Dryoscopus 526 
dubia, Cercomela 421 
dubius, Charadrius 161 
dubius, Hieraaetus 98 

ecaudatus, Terathopius 84 
Egretta 30 
Elanus 111 

elegans, Sarothrura 145 
eleonorae, Falco 118 
Emberiza 630 
eminibey, Passer 606 
Ephippiorhynchus 41 
episcopus, Ciconia 40 
epops , Upupa 336 
eremitus, Geronticus 45 


Eremomela 472 
Eremopterix 370 

erythrocephalus, Trachyphonus 351 
Erythrocercus 509 
erythronotos , Estrilda 618 
erythrophthalma, Netta 65 
erythrops, Quelea 596 
erythropus, Tringa 180 
erythrorhynchos , Anas 58 
erythrorhynchus, Buphagus 566 
erythrorhynchus, Tockus 342 
Estrilda 617 
euchlorus, Passer 607 
Euplectes 583, D21 
Eupodotis 148 
Eurocephalus 548 
europaeus, Caprimulgus 294 
Eurystomus 335 
excubitor, Lanius 542 
exustus, Pterocles 246 

falcinellus, Limicola 197 
falcinellus, Plegadis 46 
Falco 114 

fallax, Bulweria 3 
fasciata, Amadina 627 
fasciolatus, Circaetus 81 
ferruginea, Calidris 193 
ferrugineus, Laniarius 529 
Ficedula 500 

fischeri, Phyllastrephus 417 
fischeri, Spreo 562 
fischeri, Tauraco 268 
fischeri, Vidua 613 
flainmeus, Asio D8 
flava, Campephaga 413 
flava, Motacilla 524, D19 
flavicrissalis, Eremomela 472 
flavida, Apalis 459 
flavirostra, Limnocorax 139 
flavirostris, Rynchops 244 
f lavirostris , Tockus 
flaviventris, Chlorocichla 415 
fossii, Caprimulgus C2 
fraenatus, Caprimulgus 295 
fransciscanus, Euplectes 585 
Francolinus 128, D3 
Fregata 19 
Fregetta B2 

fremantlii, Galerida 374 
frontalis, Sporopipes 611 
Fulica 146 
fuligula, Aythya 64 
fuligula, Hirundo 391 

funebris, Laniarius 530 
fuscata, Sterna 239 
fuscescens, Dendropicos 361 
fuscus, Larus 221 

gabar, Melierax 103 
galactotes, Cercotrichas 424 
galactotes, Cisticola 468 
galbula, Ploceus 590 
Galerida 373 
gallicus, Circaetus 83 
Gallinago 187 
gallinago, Gallinago 187 
Gallinula 137 
gambagae, Muscicapa 503 
gambensis, Dryoscopus 527 
garrulus , Coracias 333 
garzetta, Egretta 32 
Gelochelidon 232 
Geronticus 45 
gilletti, Mirafra 381 
glandarius, Clamator 
Glareola 212 
glareola, Tringa 181 
Glaucidium 286 
glaucurus, Eurystomus 335 
goliath, Ardea 23 
gracilirostris, Acrocephalus 453 
gracilis, Prinia 483 
gregarius, Vanellus 171 
griseicapilla, Lonchura D24 
griseldis, Acrocephalus 454 
griseus Passer 608 
guinea, Columba 250 
gularis, Cuculus 275 
gularis, Egretta 33 
guttata, Cichladusa 428 
Guttera 133 

gutturalis, Irania 431 
Gypaetus D2 
Gyps 70 

habessinica, Nectarinia 572 
Haematopus 158 
hagedash, Bostrychia 44 
Halcyon 318 
Haliaeetus 107 
Haliaetus, Pandion 113 
hamertoni , Alaemon 364 
hartlaubii, Eupodotis 148 
hemprichii, Larus 222 
hemprichii, Tockus 344 
heuglini, Cossypha 429 
heuglini, Neotis 151 


hiaticula, Charadrius 162 
Hieraaetus 98 
Himantopus 202 
himantopus, Himantopus 202 
Hippolais 474, D14 
Hirundo 388 
hirundo, Sterna 240 
holochlorus, Erythrocercus 509 
hordeaceus, Euplectes D21 
hortensis, Sylvia Dl6 
hortulana, Emberiza 630 
hottentota, Anas 59 
humilis, Eupodotis 149 
hunteri, Nectarinia 573 
hybridus, Chlidonias 229 
Hypargos 620 
hyperraetra, Mirafra 382 
Hypochera 612 
hypocherina, Vidua 614 
hypoleuca, Ficedula 500 
hypoleucos, Actitis 177 

ianthinogaster, Uraeginthus 626 
ibis, Bubulcus 28 
ibis, Mycteria 43 
ichthyaetus, Larus 223 
icterina, Hippolais 474 
icteropygialis, Eremomela 473 
idae, Ardeola 26 
import unus , Andropadus 414 
Indicator 353 
indicator, Indicator 353 
inornatus , Caprimulgus 296 
intermedia, Egretta 34 
intermedius, Ploceus 591 
interpres, Arenaria 201 
Irania 431 

isabellina, Oenanthe 439 
isabellina, Sylvietta 496 
isabellinus, Lanius 543 
Ispidina 317 
Ixobrychus 20 

jacobinus, Clamator 272 
jamesi, Tchagra 537 
johannis, Acanthis 638 
juncidis, Cisticola 469 
Jynx 357 


klass, Chrysococcyx 270 
kori, Otis 155 
krameri, Psittacula 266 

lacteus, Bubo 284 
Lagonosticta 621 
lamelligerus, Anastomus 37 
Lamprotornis 555 
languida, Hippolais 475 
Laniarius 529 
Lanius 539 

lapponica, Limosa 198 
Larus 219 

larvatus , Oriolus 400 
Leptoptilos 42 

leschenaultii, Charadrius 163 
leucocephala, Halcyon 321 
leucocephalus, Colius 310 
leucogaster, Cinnyricinclus 552 
leucogaster, Corythaixoides 267 
leucogaster, Sula 13 
leucomelaena, Sylvia 491 
leuconotus, Thalassornis 68 
leucophrys, An thus 514 
leucophrys, Cercotrichas 425 
leucopthalmus , Larus 224 
leucopterus, Chlidonias 230 
leucopygius, Turdoides 410 
leucorodia, Platalea 49, 
leucoscepus, Francolinus 129 
leucotis, Eremopterix 370 
leucotis, Otus 288 
levaillantii, Clamator 273 
levaillantoides, Francolinus 130 
lherminieri, Puffinus 6 
lichtensteinii , Pterocles 247 
Limicola 197 
Limnocorax 139 
Limosa 198 
limosa, Limosa 199 
livia, Columba 251 
lobatus, Phalaropus 204 
Lonchura 628, D2 3 
longipennis, Macrodipteryx 299 
Lophaetus 102 
ludwigii, Dicrurus 398 
lugens , Oenanthe 440 
lugens, Streptopelia 256 
lugubris, Vanellus 172 
Luscinia 432, D13 
luscinia, Luscinia 432 
Lybius 347 
Lymnocryptes 189 

maccormicki, Catharacta 215 
Macheiramphus 112 
Macrodipteryx 299 
Macronyx 519 


macroura, Vidua 615 
macrourus , Circus 77 
macrourus, Urocolius 312 
mahali, Plocepasser 601 
malabarica, Galerida 375 
malabrica, Lonchura 629 
Malaconotus 532 

margaritatus , Trachyphonus 352 
marginatus, Charadrius 164 
mariquensis, Nectarinia 574 
marina, Pelagodroma B3 
maxima, Ceryle 314 
megarhynchos , Luscinia 433 
Melaenornis 501 
melanocephala, Apalis 460 
melanocephala, Ardea 24 
melanocephalus , Lybius 347 
melanogaster, Eupodotis 150 
melanoleucus, Accipiter 86 
melanopterus, Lybius 348 
melciopterus, Vanellus 173 
melanotis, Anaplectes 582 
melanotos, Sarkidiornis 67 
melanura, Cercomela 422 
melba, Apus 305 
melba, Pytilia 623 
melaegris, Numidia 134 
Me lie rax 103 
melindae, An thus 515 
Merops 323 

metabates, Melierax 104 
microrhynchus, Bradornis 498 
migrans, Milvus 108 
Milvus 108 

minimus, Lymnocryptes 189 
minor, Batis 505 
minor, Indicator 354 
minor, Lanius 544 
minor, Phoeniconaias 50 
minor, Phoeni cuius 338 
minullus, Accipiter 87 
minuta, Calidris 194 
minutus, Ixobrychus 20 
Mirafra 376 
monachus , Neophron 72 
mongolus, Charadrius 165 
monogrammicus, Kaupifalco 101 
Monticola 434 
morio, Onychognathus D20 
Motacilla 521, D19 
motitensis, Passer 609 
mozambicus, Serinus D25 
Muscicapa 502 
musculus, Remiz 408 
musicus, Bias Dl8 

Mycteria 43 
mystacea, Sylvia 492 

naevia, Coracias 334 

namaquus, Thripias 362 

nana, Cisticola 470 

nana, Sylvia 493 

narina, Apaloderma 313 

nasutus, Tockus 345 

natalensis, Cisticola 471 

natalensis, Cossypha 430 

naumanni, Falco 119 

Neafrapus 308 

nebularia, Tringa 182 

Nectarinia 570 

nectarinoides , Nectarinia 575 

Neocossyphus 437 

Neophron 72 

Neotis 153 

Netta 65 

Nettapus 66 

niansae, Apus 306 

Nicator 416 

niger, Bubalornis 598 

niger, Chlidonias 231 

nigriceps, Eremopterix 371 

nigricollis, Ploceus 592 

nigrogularis , Phalacrocorax 17 

Nilaus 535 

nilotica, Gelochelidon 232 

nipalensis, Aquila 90 

nisoria, Sylvia 494 

nisus, Accipiter 88 

niveoguttatus , Hypargos 620 

noctua, Athene 282 

nordmanni, Glareola 212 

novaeseelandiae, Anthus 516 

nubica, Campethera 360 

nubicus, Caprimulgus 297 

nubicus, Lanius 545 

nubicus, Merops 325 

Numenius 178 

Numida 134 

Nycticorax 35 

nycticorax, Nycticorax 35 

obbiensis, Calandrella 368 
oceanicus oceanites 8 
Oceanites 8 

occipitalis, Lophaetus 102 
occipitalis, Trigonoceps 75 
ochropus, Tringa 183 
ochruros, Phoenicurus 445 
ocularis, Glareola 213 
oedicnemus, Burhinus 207 


Oena 253 
Oenanthe 438 
oenanthe, Oenanthe 441 
olivacea, Nectarinia 576 
olivae, Columba 252 
olivetorum, Hippolais 476 
onocrotalus , Pelecanus 10 
Onychognathus 558, D20 
oreobates, Merops 326 
orientalis, Anthreptes 568 
orientalis, Batis 506 
Oriolus 399 
oriolus, Oriolus 401 
Ortygospiza 622 
ostralegus, Haematopus 158 
Otis 154 
Otus 288 

Pachyptila 4 
pacificus, Puffinus 7 
pallida, Hippolais 477 
pallidus, Bradornis 499 
pal udi cola, Riparia D10 
palustris, Acrocephalus 455 
pammelaina, Melaenornis 501 
Pandion 113 

paradisaea, Sterna 241 
paradisaea, Vidua 616 
parasiticus, Stercorarius 217 
Parisoma 478 
Parus 407 

parva, Porzana 142 
parvus, Cypsiurus 307 
Passer 604, E2 
pecuarius, Charadrius 166 
Pelagodroma B3 
Pelecanus 10 

pelegrinoides, Falco 120 
peli, Scotopelia 290 
peltata, Platysteira 508 
pembae, Nectarinia 577 
penelope, Anas 60 
pennatus, Hieraaetus 99 
percnopterus, Neophron 7 3 
peregrinus, Falco 121 
perkeo,* Batis 507 
perlatum, Glaucidium 287 
persicus, Merops 327 
Petronia 610 
Phaeopus, Numenius 179 
Phaethon 9 
Phalacrocorax 15 
Phalaropus 204 
philippae, Sylvietta 497 

phillipsi, Oenanthe 442 

Philomachus 200 

phoenicea, Campephaga D12 

Phoeniconaias 50 

Phoenicopterus 51 

Phoeniculus 337 

Phoenicurus 445 

phoenicurus , Phoenicurus 446 

Phyllastrephus 417 

Phylloscopus 479 

picta, Ispidina 317 

pileata, Oenanthe 443 

Platalea 48 

platurus , Anthreptes 569 

Platysteira 508 

Plegadis 46 

pleschanka, Oenanthe 444 

Plocepasser 600 

Ploceus 586, D22 

plumata, Prionops 549 

Pluvialis 168, D4 

Podiea 147 

podobe, Cercotrichas 426 

poecilosterna,- Mirafra 383 

Pogoniulus 349 

Poicephalus 265 

Polemaetus 106 

Polihierax 125 

poliocephalus , Cuculus 276 

poliopleura, Emberiza 631 

poliopterus, Melierax 105 

Polyboroides 80 

pomarinus, Stercorarius 218 

Porphyrio 140 

porphyrio, Porphyrio 141 

Porzana 142 

porzana, Porzana 143 

pratincola, Glareola 214 

pringlii, Dryoscopus 528 

Prinia 483 

Prionops 549 

Prodotiscus 356 

Pseudonigrita 602 

psilolaemus, Francolinus D3 

Psittacula 266 

Pterocles 245 

Pterodroma 5 

pucherani, Guttera 133 

Puffinus 6, Bl 

pugnax, Philomachus 200 

purpurea, Ardea 25 

purpureus , Phoeniculus 339 

purpuropterus, Lamprotornis 557 

pusilla, Porzana 144 


pusillus, Merops 328 
pusillus, Pogoniulus 349 
Pyconotus 420 
pygargus, Circus 78 
pyrgita, Petronia 610 
Pytilia 623 

quadricolor, Malaconotus 533 
quadrivirgata, Cercotrichas 427 
Quelea 596 
quelea, Quelea 597 
querquedula, Anas 61 

radiatus , Polyboroides 80 
ralloides, Ardeola 27 
ranivorus, Circus 79 
rapax, Aquila 91 
Recurvirostra 203 
regius, Cosmopsarus 553 
regulus, Prodotiscus 356 
reichenowi, Streptopelia 257 
Remiz 408 

repressa, Sterna 242 
retzii, Prionops 550 
revoilii, Merops 329 
Rhinoptilus 210 
rhipidurus, Corvus 405 
Rhodophoneus 536 
rhodopyga, Estrilda 619 
Rhynchostruthus 639 
ridibundus, Larus 225 
riocourii, Chelictinia 110 
Riparia 395, D10 
riparia, Riparia 396 
roseogrisea, Streptopelia 258 
Rostratula 157 
ruber, Phoenicopterus 51 
rubetra, Saxicola 447 
rubiginosus, Ploceus 593 
rubiginosus, Turdoides 411, Dll 
ruddi, Mirafra 384 
rudis, Ceryle 315 
rueppelli, Eurocephalus 548 
rueppellii, Gyps 71 
rufa, Anhinga 18 
rufescens, Pelecanus 11 
ruficeps, Laniarius 531 
ruficollis, Calidris 195 
ruficollis, Corvus 406, El 
ruficollis, Tachybaptus 2 
ruficrista, Eupodotis 151 
rufifrons, Spiloptila 486 
rufinus, Buteo 97 
rufipennis, Butastur 94 
rufiventris, Poicephalus 265 

rufocinerea, Monticola 434 
rufocinnamomea, Mirafra 385 
rufus, Neocossyphus 437 
rupicoloides , Falco 122 
rustica, Hirundo 392 
Rynchops 244 

sabini, Larus 226 

Sagittarius 69 

salvadorii, Onychognathus 559 

sandvicensis , Sterna 243, D4a 

Sarkidiornis 67 

Sarothrura 145 

saxatilis, Monticola 435 

Saxicola 447 

schoenobaenus , Acrocephalus 4 56 

scirpaceus, Acrocephalus 457 

scopifrons, Prionops 551 

scops, Otus 289 

Scopus 36 

scotocerca, Cercomela 423 

Sco tope lia 290 

semitorquata, Streptopelia 259 

semitorquatus , Polihierax 125 

senator, Lanius 546 

senegala, Lagonosticta 621 

senegala, Tchagra 538 

senegalensis, Centropus 279 

senegalensis , Ephippiorhynchus 41 

senegalensis, Eupodotis 152 

senegalensis, Hirundo 393 

senegalensis, Podica 147 

senegalensis, Streptopelia 260 

senegallus, Pterocles 248 

senegallus, Vanellus 174 

senegaloides , Halcyon 322 

sephaena, Francolinus 131 

Serinus 634, D25 

serpentarius , Sagittarius 69 

shelleyi, Spreo 563 

sibilatrix, Phylloscopus 480 

signata, Eremopterix 372 

similis, Anthus 517 

simplex, Camaroptera 462 

skua, Catharacta 216 

smithii, Hirundo 394 

socotranus , Rhynchostruthus 639 

solitaria, Monticola 436 

solitarius, Cuculus 277 

somalica, Calandrella 369 

somalica, Mirafra 386 

somalica, Prinia 484 

somalicus, Lanius 547 

Speculipastor 560 

spekei , Ploceus 594 


spilogaster, Hieraaetus 100 

Spiloptila 486 

spinosus, Vanellus 175 

Sporopipes 611 

Spreo 561 

squamulatus, Turdoides 412 

squatarola, Pluvialis 169 

stagnatilis, Tringa 184 

stellatus, Caprimulgus 298 

stentoreus, Acrocephalus 458 

stenura, Gallinago 188 

Stercorarius 217 

Sterna 233, D4a 

stolidus, Anous 227 

strepera, Anas 62 

strepitans, Phyllastrephus 418 

Streptopelia 254 

striata, Muscicapa 504 

striatus, Butorides 29 

striatus, Colius 311 

striolata, Emberiza 632 

Sturnus 565 

Struthio 1 

sturmii, Ixobrychus 21 

subbuteo, Falco 123 

subflava, Prinia 485 

Sula 12 

sula, Sula 14 

sulfureopectus , Malaconotus 534 

superbus , Spreo 564 

superciliosus, Centropus 280 

superciliosus, Merops 330 

svecica, Luscinia D13 

sylvatica, Turnix 135 

Sylvia 487, D15 

Sylvietta 495, D17 

tachiro, Accipiter 89 

Tachybaptus 2 

taeniopterus, Ploceus D22 

tahapisi, Emberiza 633 

Tauraco 268 

Tshagra 537 

tectus, Vanellus 176 

Telacanthura 309 

temmincki, Calidris 196 

tenellus, Tmetothylacus 525 

tenuirostris, Anous 228 

tephronotus, Turdus 450 

Terathopius 84 

Terpsiphone 510 

terrestris, Phyllastrephus 419 

Thalassornis 68 

Threskiornis 47 

Thripias 362 

tinnunculus, Falco 124 

Tmetothylacus 525 

Tockus 340 

Torgos 74 

torquata, Saxicola 448 

torquilla, Jynx 357 

totanus , Tringa 185 

tracheliotus , Torgos 74 

Trachyphonus 350 

Treron 264 

tricollaris, Charadrius 167 

Trigonoceps 75 

Tringa 180 

tristriatus, Serinus 637 

trivialis, Anthus 518 

trochilus, Phylloscopus 481 

Trochocercus 511 

tropica, Fregetta B2 

Turdoides 409, Dll 

Turdus 449 

Turnix 135 

Turtur 262, D6 

turtur, Streptopelia 261 

tympanistria, Turtur 263 

Tyto 281 

umbretta, Scopus 36 

umbrovirens, Phylloscopus 482 

undulata, Anas 63 

Upupa 336 

Uraeginthus 624 

urbica, Delichon 387 

Urocolius 312 

ussheri, Telacanthura 309 

Vanellus 170 

variegatus, Indicator 355 
velatus, Ploceus 595 
venusta, Nectarinia 578 
vermiculatus, Burhinus 208 
veroxii, Nectarinia 579 
verreauxi, Aquila 92 
vexillarius, Macrodipteryx 300 
Vidua 613 

viduata, Dendrocygna 53 
viridis, Terpisphone 510 
vocifer, Haliaeetus 107 
vulgaris, Sturnus 565 
vulturinum, Acryllium 132 

waalia, Treron 264 
wahlbergi, Aquila 93 
whytii, Sylvietta D17 


woodfordii, Ciccaba 285 
Xenus 186 
Zosterops 580